Bulletin of Materials Science

, Volume 37, Issue 2, pp 213–219 | Cite as

One-pot synthesis of hydroxyapatite–silica nanopowder composite for hardness enhancement of glass ionomer cement (GIC)

  • ISMAIL AB RAHMANEmail author


Hydroxyapatite–silica nanopowder composite was prepared using one-pot sol–gel technique. The morphology of the powder consists of a mixture of spherical silica particles (∼30 nm) embedded within the elongated hydroxyapatite (∼103 nm). The synthesized nanoparticles were incorporated into commercial glass ionomer cement (GIC) and Vickers hardness was evaluated. Results shown that the addition of the nanopowder composite gave ∼73% increment in the hardness compared to the pure GIC. Higher content of hydroxyapatite–silica nanopowder resulted in dense cement and produced a stronger GIC and the application of this material with improved hardness property might lead to extend the clinical indications, especially in stress bearing areas.


Hydroxyapatite–silica nanopowder sol–gel technique glass ionomer cement hardness 



Financial support of this research work is given by Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education under fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS/203/PPSG/6171138) is highly acknowledged. Authors also thank Ms Quah Su Yin for doing part of the work.


  1. Arcis R W, López-Macipe A, Toledano M, Osorio E, Rodríguez-Clemente R, Murtra J, Fanovich M A and Pascual C D 2002 J. Dent. Mater. 18 49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arita K, Lucas M E and Nishino M 2003 J. Dent. Mater. 22 126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dorozhkin S V 2010 Acta Biomater. 6 715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Green D L, Lin J S, Lam Y F, Hu M Z C, Schaefer D W and Harris M T 2003 J. Colloid Interface Sci. 266 346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gu Y W, Yap A U J, Chang P and Khor K A 2005 Biomaterials 26 713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Jafarzadeh M, Rahman I A and Sipaut C S 2009 J. Sol–Gel Sci. Technol. 50 328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kawata M, Uchida H, Itatani K, Okada I, Koda S and Aizawa M 2004 J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 15 817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kerby R E and Bleiholder R F 1991 J. Dent. Res. 70 1385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lohbauer U, Frankenberger R, Clare A, Petschelt A and Greil P 2004 Biomaterials 25 5217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lohbauer U 2010 Materials 3 76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lucas M E, Arita K and Nishino M 2003 Biomaterials 24 3787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Magni E, Ferrari M, Hickel R and Ilie N 2010 Clin. Oral Investig. 14 79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. McLean J W and Gasser O 1985 Quint. Int. 16 333Google Scholar
  14. Miyaji F, Kono Y and Suyama Y 2005 Mater. Res. Bull. 40 209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Moshaverinia A, Ansari S, Moshaverinia M, Roohpour N, Darr J A and Rehman I 2008 Acta Biomater. 4 432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nicholson J W, Hawkins S J and Smith J E 1993 J. Mater. Sci: Mater. Med. 4 418Google Scholar
  17. Panda R N, Hsieh M F, Chung R J and Chin T S 2003 J. Phys. Chem. Solids 64 193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rahman I A, Vejaykumaran P, Sipaut C S, Ismail J, Abu Bakar M, Adnan R and Chee C K 2007 Colloid Surface A 294 102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rehman I and Bonfield W 1997 J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 8 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rozita A R, Rohana A, Mohamad A B and Sam’an M M 2011 J. Phys. Sci. 22 25Google Scholar
  21. Shintome L K, Nagayassu M P, Nicoló R D and Myaki S I 2009 Brazilian Oral Res. 23 439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Silva R C, Zuanon A C C, Candido M S M and Machado J S 2007 J. Mater. Sci: Mater. Med. 18 139Google Scholar
  23. Varma H K and Babu S S 2005 Ceram. Int. 31 109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Vasant E F, Van Der Voort P and Vranchen K C 1995 Characterization and chemical modification of the Silica surfaces. Elesvier Sciences, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Walls A W G 1986 J. Dent. 14 231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wang J and Shaw L L 2009 Biomaterials 30 6565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Xie D, Brantley W A, Culbertson B M and Wang G 2000 Dent. Mater. 16 129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Yap A U J 1997 J. Mater. Sci: Mater. Med. 8 413Google Scholar
  29. Yap A U J, Pek Y S, Kumar R A, Cheang P and Khor K A 2002 Biomaterials 23 955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yli-Urpo H, Lassila L V J, Nrähi T and Vallittu P K 2005 J. Dent. Mater. 21 201CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2014

Authors and Affiliations

    • 1
    Email author
    • 1
    • 1
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Dental SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaKubang KerianMalaysia

Personalised recommendations