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Molecular Biotechnology

, Volume 56, Issue 1, pp 12–37 | Cite as

An Experimental Approach to the Generation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Equivalents

  • Katarzyna Skowron
  • Marcin Tomsia
  • Piotr CzekajEmail author
Reviews

Abstract

Recently, particular attention has been paid to the human embryonic stem cells (hESC) in the context of their potential application in regenerative medicine; however, ethical concerns prevent their clinical application. Induction of pluripotency in somatic cells seems to be a good alternative for hESC recruitment regarding its potential use in tissue regeneration, disease modeling, and drug screening. Since Yamanaka’s team in 2006 restored pluripotent state of somatic cells for the first time, a significant progress has been made in the area of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) generation. Here, we review the current state of knowledge in the issue of techniques applied to establish iPSC. Somatic cell nuclear transfer, cell fusion, cell extracts reprogramming, and techniques of direct reprogramming are described. Retroviral and lentiviral transduction are depicted as ways of cell reprogramming with the use of integrating vectors. Contrary to them, adenoviruses, plasmids, single multiprotein expression vectors, and PiggyBac transposition systems are examples of non-integrative vectors used in iPSC generation protocols. Furthermore, reprogramming with the delivery of specific proteins, miRNA or small chemical compounds are presented. Finally, the changes occurring during the reprogramming process are described. It is concluded that subject to some limitations iPSC could become equivalents for hESC in regenerative medicine.

Keywords

Adult stem cells Human embryonic stem cells Induced pluripotent stem cells Pluripotency Somatic cell reprogramming 

Abbreviations

ASC

Adult stem cells

CSC

Cancer stem cells

Dox

Doxycycline

ESC

Embryonic stem cells

hEC

Human embryonic carcinoma

hESC

Human embryonic stem cells

hiPSC

Human-induced pluripotent stem cells

hp-iPSC

Human protein-induced pluripotent stem cells

ICM

Inner cell mass

iPSC

Induced pluripotent stem cells

mESC

Mouse embryonic stem cells

MEF

Mouse embryonic fibroblasts

OSK

Oct4, Sox2, Klf4

miRNA

MicroRNA

OSKM

Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc

PB

PiggyBac

PGC

Primordial germ cells

PSC

Pluripotent stem cells

SC

Stem cells

SCNT

Somatic cell nuclear transfer

VPA

Valproic acid

VSEL

Very small embryonic-like stem cells

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katarzyna Skowron
    • 1
  • Marcin Tomsia
    • 2
  • Piotr Czekaj
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Students Scientific SocietyMedical University of SilesiaKatowicePoland
  2. 2.Department of Histology and EmbryologyMedical University of SilesiaKatowicePoland

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