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Risk factors for breast cancer in women: an update review

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Abstract

Breast Cancer remains, according to the World Health Organization, the most complex disease cancer in 2021 in the world and the most common cause of death among women. Based on unequivocal scientific data, the establishment of an operative program for prevention could save lives of millions women suffering from breast cancer. In this update review, we highlight the major risk factors related to breast cancer investigated in women over the last 5 years. Thus, we clarify the involvement of these risk factors in the occurrence and growth of breast cancer. Investigations of 15 studies (n = 1,254,418; six case–control studies, five cohort studies, three prospective studies, and one meta-analysis) revealed that age, family history, obesity, use of oral contraceptives, status menopausal, smoking, alcohol consumption, lifestyle, and genetics factors are significantly linked to breast cancer. Additional studies are needed to corroborate these outcomes and initiate new practices aimed at preventing breast cancer.

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Data availability

The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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The authors declare that no funds, grants, or other support were received during the preparation of this manuscript.

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All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Draft preparation and data collection were performed by NF and NEK. The first draft of the manuscript was written by NF. Data analysis was performed by NF, MAC, ML, HD, AH, AB, and NEK. All authors revised the previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Nadia El Kadmiri.

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Fakhri, N., Chad, M.A., Lahkim, M. et al. Risk factors for breast cancer in women: an update review. Med Oncol 39, 197 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12032-022-01804-x

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