Many studies were performed to unravel the effects of different types of Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on biological systems. Some studies were conducted to exploit EMFs for medical purposes mainly in cancer therapy. Although many studies suggest that the EMFs exposures can be effective in pre-clinical cancer issues, the treatment outcomes of these exposures on the cancer cells, especially at the molecular level, are challenging and overwhelmingly complicated yet. This article aims to review the epigenetic mechanisms that can be altered by EMFs exposures with the main emphasis on Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF). The epigenetic mechanisms are reversible and affected by environmental factors, thus, EMFs exposures can modulate these mechanisms. According to the reports, ELF-EMF exposures affect epigenetic machinery directly or through the molecular signaling pathways. ELF-EMF in association with DNA methylation, histone modification, miRNAs, and nucleosome remodeling could affect the homeostasis of cancer cells and play a role in DNA damage repairing, apoptosis induction, prevention of metastasis, differentiation, and cell cycle regulation. In general, the result of this study shows that ELF-EMF exposure probably can be effective in cancer epigenetic therapy, but more molecular and clinical investigations are needed to clarify the safe and specific dosimetric characteristics of ELF-EMF in practice.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
García-Minguillán O, et al. CT2A cell viability modulated by electromagnetic fields at extremely low frequency under no thermal effects. Int J Mol Sci. 2020;21(1):152.
Jankowska M, et al. Exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic field changes the efficiency of the scorpion alpha toxin. J Venom Anim Toxins Inclu Trop Dis. 2015; 21:38
Goto T, et al. Noninvasive up-regulation of angiopoietin-2 and fibroblast growth factor-2 in bone marrow by pulsed electromagnetic field therapy. J Orthop Sci. 2010;15(5):661–5.
Zhou J, et al. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on bone mass and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in ovariectomized rats. Arch Med Res. 2012;43(4):274–82.
Tong J, et al. Pulsed electromagnetic fields promote the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts by reinforcing intracellular calcium transients. Bioelectromagnetics. 2017;38(7):541–9.
Brighton CT, McCluskey WP. Response of cultured bone cells to a capacitively coupled electric field: inhibition of cAMP response to parathyroid hormone. J Orthop Res. 1988;6(4):567–71.
Muehsam D, Pilla A. The sensitivity of cells and tissues to exogenous fields: effects of target system initial state. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg. 1999;48(1):35–42.
Lee JH, McLeod KJ. Morphologic responses of osteoblast‐like cells in monolayer culture to ELF electromagnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics. 2000; 21(2):129–136
Bourguignon GJ, Jy W, Bourguignon LY. Electric stimulation of human fibroblasts causes an increase in Ca2+ influx and the exposure of additional insulin receptors. J Cell Physiol. 1989;140(2):379–85.
Cossarizza A, et al. Extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields increase interleukin-2 (IL-2) utilization and IL-2 receptor expression in mitogen-stimulated human lymphocytes from old subjects. FEBS Lett. 1989;248(1–2):141–4.
Fitzsimmons RJ, et al. IGF-II receptor number is increased in TE-85 osteosarcoma cells by combined magnetic fields. J Bone Miner Res. 1995;10(5):812–9.
Cho MR, et al. Induced redistribution of cell surface receptors by alternating current electric fields. FASEB J. 1994;8(10):771–6.
Shankar VS, et al. Effects of electromagnetic stimulation on the functional responsiveness of isolated rat osteoclasts. J Cell Physiol. 1998;176(3):537–44.
Varani K, et al. Effect of low frequency electromagnetic fields on A2A adenosine receptors in human neutrophils. Br J Pharmacol. 2002;136(1):57–66.
Nagai M, Ota M. Pulsating electromagnetic field stimulates mRNA expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and-4. J Dent Res. 1994;73(10):1601–5.
Aaron RK, Wang S, Ciombor DM. Upregulation of basal TGFβ1 levels by EMF coincident with chondrogenesis–implications for skeletal repair and tissue engineering. J Orthop Res. 2002;20(2):233–40.
Lohmann C, et al. Pulsed electromagnetic fields affect phenotype and connexin 43 protein expression in MLO‐Y4 osteocyte‐like cells and ROS 17/2.8 osteoblast‐like cells. J Orthop Res. 2003;21(2): 326–334
Holmes D. Non-union bone fracture: a quicker fix. Nature. 2017;550(7677):S193–S193.
Ciombor DM, Aaron RK. The role of electrical stimulation in bone repair. Foot Ankle Clin. 2005;10(4):579–93.
Ehnert S, et al. Extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields cause antioxidative defense mechanisms in human osteoblasts via induction of ⋅O2− and H2O2. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):1–11.
Noriega-Luna B, et al. Influence of pulsed magnetic fields on the morphology of bone cells in early stages of growth. Micron. 2011;42(6):600–7.
Tsai MT, et al. Pulsed electromagnetic fields affect osteoblast proliferation and differentiation in bone tissue engineering. Bioelectromagnetics. 2007;28(7): 519–528
Grassi C, et al. Effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields on voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and their role in modulation of neuroendocrine cell proliferation and death. Cell Calcium. 2004;35(4):307–15.
Mayer-Wagner S, et al. Effects of low frequency electromagnetic fields on the chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Bioelectromagnetics. 2011;32(4):283–90.
Piacentini R, et al. Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields promote in vitro neurogenesis via upregulation of Cav1-channel activity. J Cell Physiol. 2008;215(1):129–39.
Simkó M, Mattsson MO. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields as effectors of cellular responses in vitro: possible immune cell activation. J Cell Biochem. 2004;93(1):83–92.
Reale M, et al. Modulation of MCP-1 and iNOS by 50-Hz sinusoidal electromagnetic field. Nitric Oxide. 2006;15(1):50–7.
Garip A, Akan Z. Effect of ELF-EMF on number of apoptotic cells; correlation with reactive oxygen species and HSP. Acta Biol Hung. 2010;61(2):158–67.
Frahm J, Mattsson M-O, Simkó M. Exposure to ELF magnetic fields modulate redox related protein expression in mouse macrophages. Toxicol Lett. 2010;192(3):330–6.
Cichoń N, et al. Increase in blood levels of growth factors involved in the neuroplasticity process by using an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field in post-stroke patients. Front Aging Neurosci. 2018;10:294.
Cichoń N, et al. Benign effect of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field on brain plasticity assessed by nitric oxide metabolism during poststroke rehabilitation. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017; 2017.
Ki G-E, et al. Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields increase the expression of Anagen-related molecules in human dermal papilla cells via GSK-3β/ERK/Akt signaling pathway. Int J Mol Sci. 2020;21(3):784.
Ledda M, et al. Non-ionizing radiation for cardiac human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cell commitment: a physical strategy in regenerative medicine. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(8):2324.
Costantini E, et al. Human gingival fibroblasts exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields: in vitro model of wound-healing improvement. Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(9): 2108.
Liu Y, et al. Effect of 50 Hz extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on the DNA methylation and DNA methyltransferases in mouse spermatocyte-derived cell line GC-2. BioMed Res Int. 2015; 2015.
Sharma S, Kelly TK, Jones PA. Epigenetics in cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2010;31(1):27–36.
Wolffe AP, Matzke MA. Epigenetics: regulation through repression. Science. 1999; 286(5439): 481–486.
Ehnert S, et al. Translational insights into extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (ELF-PEMFs) for bone regeneration after trauma and orthopedic surgery. J Clin Med. 2019;8(12):2028.
D’Angelo C, et al. Experimental model for ELF-EMF exposure: concern for human health. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2015;22(1):75–84.
Lee SK, et al. Extremely low frequency magnetic fields induce spermatogenic germ cell apoptosis: possible mechanism. BioMed Res Int. 2014; 2014.
Guerriero F, Ricevuti G. Blog single. Mult Scler. 2010: 0.
Friedman J, et al. Mechanism of short-term ERK activation by electromagnetic fields at mobile phone frequencies. Biochem J. 2007;405(3):559–68.
Mattsson MO, Simko M. Emerging medical applications based on non-ionizing electromagnetic fields from 0 Hz to 10 THz. Med Devices (Auckl). 2019;12:347–68.
Varani K, et al. Adenosine receptors as a biological pathway for the anti-inflammatory and beneficial effects of low frequency low energy pulsed electromagnetic fields. Mediators Inflamm. 2017;2017:2740963.
Kovacic P, Somanathan R. Electromagnetic fields: mechanism, cell signaling, other bioprocesses, toxicity, radicals, antioxidants and beneficial effects. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2010;30(4):214–26.
Bassett CA. Beneficial effects of electromagnetic fields. J Cell Biochem. 1993;51(4):387–93.
Song K, et al. A 60 Hz uniform electromagnetic field promotes human cell proliferation by decreasing intracellular reactive oxygen species levels. PLoS One. 2018; 13(7): e0199753.
Glasauer A, Chandel NS. Targeting antioxidants for cancer therapy. Biochem Pharmacol. 2014;92(1):90–101.
Wilson D, Jagadeesh P. Experimental regeneration in peripheral nerves and the spinal cord in laboratory animals exposed to a pulsed electromagnetic field. Spinal Cord. 1976;14(1):12–20.
Rusovan A, Kanje M. Stimulation of regeneration of the rat sciatic nerve by 50 Hz sinusoidal magnetic fields. Exp Neurol. 1991;112(3):312–6.
Bai W-F, et al. Fifty-Hertz electromagnetic fields facilitate the induction of rat bone mesenchymal stromal cells to differentiate into functional neurons. Cytotherapy. 2013;15(8):961–70.
Mareschi K, et al. Neural differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells: evidence for expression of neural markers and eag K+ channel types. Exp Hematol. 2006;34(11):1563–72.
Sulpizio M, et al. Molecular basis underlying the biological effects elicited by extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) on neuroblastoma cells. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112(12):3797–806.
Rezaie-Tavirani M, et al. Proteomic analysis of the effect of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) with different intensities in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. J Lasers Med Sci. 2017;8(2):79.
Bassett C, Schink-Ascani M, Lewis S. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on Steinberg ratings of femoral head osteonecrosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1989;246:172–85.
Ikegami A, et al. Femoral perfusion after pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation in a steroid-induced osteonecrosis model. Bioelectromagnetics. 2015;36(5):349–57.
Tepper OM, et al. Electromagnetic fields increase in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis through endothelial release of FGF-2. FASEB J. 2004;18(11):1231–3.
Hu H, et al. Promising application of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) in musculoskeletal disorders. Biomed Pharmacother. 2020; 131: 110767.
Streit A, et al. Effect on clinical outcome and growth factor synthesis with adjunctive use of pulsed electromagnetic fields for fifth metatarsal nonunion fracture: a double-blind randomized study. Foot Ankle Int. 2016;37(9):919–23.
Fitzsimmons RJ, et al. Low-amplitude, low-frequency electric field-stimulated bone cell proliferation may in part be mediated by increased IGF-II release. J Cell Physiol. 1992;150(1):84–9.
Wang T, et al. Pulsed electromagnetic fields: promising treatment for osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int. 2019;30(2):267–76.
McCarthy CJ, Callaghan MJ, Oldham JA. Pulsed electromagnetic energy treatment offers no clinical benefit in reducing the pain of knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2006;7(1):1–5.
Wuschech H, et al. Effects of PEMF on patients with osteoarthritis: results of a prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Bioelectromagnetics. 2015;36(8):576–85.
Esposito M, et al. Differentiation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells, WJ-MSCs, into chondrogenic cells in the presence of pulsed electromagnetic fields. In Vivo. 2013;27(4):495–500.
Anbarasan S, et al. Low dose short duration pulsed electromagnetic field effects on cultured human chondrocytes. Indian J Orthop. 2016;50(1):87–93.
Ciombor DM, et al. Modification of osteoarthritis by pulsed electromagnetic field—a morphological study. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2003;11(6):455–62.
Spadaro JA, et al. Electromagnetic effects on forearm disuse osteopenia: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study. Bioelectromagnetics. 2011;32(4):273–82.
Roozbeh N, et al. Influence of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on the fertility system: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis. JMIR Res Protoc. 2018; 7(2): e33.
Ishida M, et al. Electromagnetic fields. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466(5):1068–73.
Marmotti A, et al. Pulsed electromagnetic fields improve tenogenic commitment of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells: a potential strategy for tendon repair—an in vitro study. Stem Cells Int. 2018; 2018.
De Girolamo L, et al. In vitro functional response of human tendon cells to different dosages of low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2015;23(11):3443–53.
Liu M, et al. Role of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on tenocytes and myoblasts—potential application for treating rotator cuff tears. J Orthop Res. 2017;35(5):956–64.
Wei Y, Xiaolin H, Tao S. Effects of extremely low-frequency-pulsed electromagnetic field on different-derived osteoblast-like cells. Electromagn Biol Med. 2008;27(3):298–311.
Canè V, Botti P, Soana S. Pulsed magnetic fields improve osteoblast activity during the repair of an experimental osseous defect. J Orthop Res. 1993;11(5):664–70.
Ehnert S, et al. Primary human osteoblasts with reduced alkaline phosphatase and matrix mineralization baseline capacity are responsive to extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field exposure—clinical implication possible. Bone Rep. 2015;3:48–56.
Yumoto H, et al. Electromagnetic wave irradiation promotes osteoblastic cell proliferation and up-regulates growth factors via activation of the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2015;35(2):601–15.
Nindl G, et al. Experiments showing that electromagnetic fields can be used to treat inflammatory diseases. Biomed Sci Instrum. 2000;36:7–13.
Varani K, et al. Adenosine receptors as a biological pathway for the anti-inflammatory and beneficial effects of low frequency low energy pulsed electromagnetic fields. Mediators Inflamm. 2017; 2017.
Vincenzi F, et al. Pulsed electromagnetic fields increased the anti-inflammatory effect of A2A and A3 adenosine receptors in human T/C-28a2 chondrocytes and hFOB 1.19 osteoblasts. PloS One. 2013; 8(5): e65561.
Yuan J, Xin F, Jiang W. Underlying signaling pathways and therapeutic applications of pulsed electromagnetic fields in bone repair. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018;46(4):1581–94.
Milgram J, et al. The effect of short, high intensity magnetic field pulses on the healing of skin wounds in rats. Bioelectromagnetics. 2004; 25(4): 271–277.
Cheing GLY, et al. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) promote early wound healing and myofibroblast proliferation in diabetic rats. Bioelectromagnetics. 2014;35(3):161–9.
Athanasiou A, et al. The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on secondary skin wound healing: an experimental study. Bioelectromagnetics. 2007; 28(5): 362–368.
Matic M, et al. Influence of different types of electromagnetic fields on skin reparatory processes in experimental animals. Lasers Med Sci. 2009;24(3):321–7.
Henry SL, Concannon MJ, Yee GJ. The effect of magnetic fields on wound healing: experimental study and review of the literature. Eplasty. 2008; 8.
Vianale G, et al. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field enhances human keratinocyte cell growth and decreases proinflammatory chemokine production. Br J Dermatol. 2008;158(6):1189–96.
Manni V, et al. Effects of extremely low frequency (50 Hz) magnetic field on morphological and biochemical properties of human keratinocytes. Bioelectromagnetics. 2002; 23(4): 298–305.
Pesce M, et al. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field and wound healing: implication of cytokines as biological mediators. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2013;24(1):1–10.
Patruno A, et al. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields modulate expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCat: potential therapeutic effects in wound healing. Br J Dermatol. 2010;162(2):258–66.
Goodman R, et al. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields activate the ERK cascade, increase hsp70 protein levels and promote regeneration in Planaria. Int J Radiat Biol. 2009;85(10):851–9.
Kim Y-M, et al. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on melanogenesis through p-ERK and p-SAPK/JNK pathways in human melanocytes. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18(10):2120.
Klimek A, Rogalska J. Extremely low-frequency magnetic field as a stress factor—really detrimental?—insight into literature from the last decade. Brain Sci. 2021;11(2):174.
Paolucci T, et al. Efficacy of extremely low-frequency magnetic field in fibromyalgia pain: a pilot study. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2016;53(6):1023–34.
Chen G, et al. Effect of electromagnetic field exposure on chemically induced differentiation of friend erythroleukemia cells. Environ Health Perspect. 2000;108(10):967–72.
Ding GR, et al. Extremely low frequency magnetic fields and the promotion of H2O2-induced cell death in HL-60 cells. Int J Radiat Biol. 2004;80(4):317–24.
Liburdy R, et al. ELF magnetic fields, breast cancer, and melatonin: 60 Hz fields block melatonin’s oncostatic action on ER+ breast cancer cell proliferation. J Pineal Res. 1993;14(2):89–97.
Nishimura T, et al. A 1-μT extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field vs. sham control for mild-to-moderate hypertension: a double-blind, randomized study. Hypertens Res. 2011; 34(3): 372–377.
Torres-Duran PV, et al. Effects of whole body exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on serum and liver lipid levels, in the rat. Lipids Health Dis. 2007;6(1):1–6.
Goldberg AD, Allis CD, Bernstein E. Epigenetics: a landscape takes shape. Cell. 2007;128(4):635–8.
Pulliero A, et al. Genetic and epigenetic effects of environmental mutagens and carcinogens. 2015, Hindawi.
Jankowska AM, Millward CL, Caldwell CW. The potential of DNA modifications as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in oncology. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2015;15(10):1325–37.
Alegría-Torres JA, Baccarelli A, Bollati V. Epigenetics and lifestyle. Epigenomics. 2011;3(3):267–77.
Manser M, et al. ELF-MF exposure affects the robustness of epigenetic programming during granulopoiesis. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):1–14.
Sigalotti L, et al. Epigenetic drugs as pleiotropic agents in cancer treatment: biomolecular aspects and clinical applications. J Cell Physiol. 2007;212(2):330–44.
Abdel-Hafiz HA, Horwitz KB. Role of epigenetic modifications in luminal breast cancer. Epigenomics. 2015;7(5):847–62.
Mehta A, et al. Epigenetics in lung cancer diagnosis and therapy. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2015;34(2):229–41.
Mayes K, et al. ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes as novel targets for cancer therapy, in Advances in cancer research. 2014, Elsevier. pp. 183-233
Becker PB, Workman JL. Nucleosome remodeling and epigenetics. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2013; 5(9): a017905.
Iacobucci I, et al. Genomic subtyping and therapeutic targeting of acute erythroleukemia. Nat Genet. 2019;51(4):694–704.
Yi J, Wu J. Epigenetic regulation in medulloblastoma. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2018;87:65–76.
Geller JI, Roth JJ, Biegel JA. Biology and treatment of rhabdoid tumor. Crit Rev Oncog. 2015; 20(3–4).
Bottani M, Banfi G, Lombardi G. Circulating miRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in common solid tumors: focus on lung, breast, prostate cancers, and osteosarcoma. J Clin Med. 2019;8(10):1661.
Chen Z, et al. High-resolution and high-accuracy topographic and transcriptional maps of the nucleosome barrier. Elife. 2019; 8: e48281.
Mazina MY, Vorobyeva N. The role of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes in regulation of genetic processes. Russ J Genet. 2016;52(5):463–72.
Hamam R, et al. Circulating microRNAs in breast cancer: novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Cell Death Dis. 2017;8(9):e3045–e3045.
Filipów S, Łaczmański Ł. Blood circulating miRNAs as cancer biomarkers for diagnosis and surgical treatment response. Front Genet. 2019;10:169.
Kawaguchi T, et al. Circulating microRNAs: a next-generation clinical biomarker for digestive system cancers. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17(9):1459.
Audia JE, Campbell RM. Histone modifications and cancer. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2016; 8(4): a019521.
Liu Y, et al. Overexpression of miR-26b-5p regulates the cell cycle by targeting CCND2 in GC-2 cells under exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. Cell Cycle. 2016;15(3):357–67.
Kheifets L, et al. Extremely low frequency electric fields and cancer: assessing the evidence. Bioelectromagnetics. 2010; 31(2): 89–101.
Azadian E, et al. A comprehensive overview on utilizing electromagnetic fields in bone regenerative medicine. Electromagn Biol Med. 2019;38(1):1–20.
Koziorowska A, et al. Extremely low frequency variable electromagnetic fields affect cancer and noncancerous cells in vitro differently: preliminary study. Electromagn Biol Med. 2018;37(1):35–42.
Provenzano AE, et al. Effects of fifty-hertz electromagnetic fields on granulocytic differentiation of ATRA-treated acute promyelocytic leukemia NB4 cells. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018;46(1):389–400.
Blankenburg M, et al. High-throughput omics technologies: potential tools for the investigation of influences of EMF on biological systems. Curr Genomics. 2009;10(2):86–92.
Sage C, Burgio E. Electromagnetic fields, pulsed radiofrequency radiation, and epigenetics: how wireless technologies may affect childhood development. Child Dev. 2018;89(1):129–36.
Zimmerman JW, et al. Targeted treatment of cancer with radiofrequency electromagnetic fields amplitude-modulated at tumor-specific frequencies. Chin J Cancer. 2013;32(11):573.
Vadalà M, et al. Mechanisms and therapeutic effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in oncology. Cancer Med. 2016;5(11):3128–39.
Pasi F, et al. Pulsed electromagnetic field with temozolomide can elicit an epigenetic pro-apoptotic effect on glioblastoma T98G cells. Anticancer Res. 2016;36(11):5821–6.
Giorgi G, et al. Assessing the combined effect of extremely low-frequency magnetic field exposure and oxidative stress on LINE-1 promoter methylation in human neural cells. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2017;56(2):193–200.
Calcabrini C, et al. Effect of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on antioxidant activity in the human keratinocyte cell line NCTC 2544. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2017;64(3):415–22.
Kivrak EG, et al. Effects of electromagnetic fields exposure on the antioxidant defense system. J Microsc Ultrastruct. 2017;5(4):167–76.
Santini SJ, et al. Corrigendum to “Role of mitochondria in the oxidative stress induced by electromagnetic fields: focus on reproductive systems.” Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2020;2020:5203105.
Santini SJ, et al. Role of mitochondria in the oxidative stress induced by electromagnetic fields: focus on reproductive systems. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018;2018:5076271.
Lim SO, et al. Epigenetic changes induced by reactive oxygen species in hepatocellular carcinoma: methylation of the E-cadherin promoter. Gastroenterology. 2008; 135(6): 2128–40, 2140 e1–8.
Koturbash I. 2017 Michael fry award lecture when DNA is actually not a target: radiation epigenetics as a tool to understand and control cellular response to ionizing radiation. Radiat Res. 2018;190(1):5–11.
Miousse IR, et al. One-carbon metabolism and ionizing radiation: a multifaceted interaction. Biomol Concepts. 2017;8(2):83–92.
Kim J-G, et al. Epigenetics meets radiation biology as a new approach in cancer treatment. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14(7):15059–73.
Dasdag S, et al. Effects of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi equipment on microRNA expression in brain tissue. Int J Radiat Biol. 2015; 91(7): 555–561.
Varghese E, et al. Anti-cancer agents in proliferation and cell death: the calcium connection. Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(12).
Brzozowski JS, Skelding KA. The multi-functional calcium/calmodulin stimulated protein kinase (CaMK) family: emerging targets for anti-cancer therapeutic intervention. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2019; 12(1).
Bissonnette SL, et al. The role of CaMKII in calcium-activated death pathways in bone marrow B cells. Toxicol Sci. 2010;118(1):108–18.
Chuang HC, Wang X, Tan TH. MAP4K family kinases in immunity and inflammation. Adv Immunol. 2016;129:277–314.
Lee S, Rauch J, Kolch W. Targeting MAPK signaling in cancer: mechanisms of drug resistance and sensitivity. Int J Mol Sci. 2020; 21(3).
Jaquenod De Giusti C, Roman B, Das S. The influence of micrornas on mitochondrial calcium. Front Physiol. 2018; 9: 1291.
Conflict of interest
The authors state that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this article.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Shayeghan, M., Forouzesh, F., Madjid Ansari, A. et al. DNMT1 and miRNAs: possible epigenetics footprints in electromagnetic fields utilization in oncology. Med Oncol 38, 125 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12032-021-01574-y
- Electromagnetic fields
- Non-ionizing EMF