Expression of cellular apoptosis susceptibility (CAS) in the human testis and testicular germ cell tumors
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Testicular germ cell tumors are the most frequent malignancies found in men between 15 and 44 years old. Although cellular apoptosis susceptibility (CAS) was demonstrated to be upregulated in breast cancer and colon cancer, the expression of CAS in the human testis and testicular germ cell tumors remained elusive. In the present study, CAS-positive signals were detected in the normal testicular tissues, cancer adjacent normal testicular tissues, seminoma, yolk sac tumor, and teratoma. Interestingly, the expression level of CAS in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) (but not seminoma) was significantly lower than that of human testicular tissues and cancer adjacent normal testicular tissues, suggesting that decreased CAS contributed to the progression of TGCTs. Notably, the expression of CAS in seminoma was significantly higher than that of in the non-seminomas, consistent with the results from TCGA database. Furthermore, the localization of CAS is mainly restricted in the nucleus in the lesions of normal human testicular tissue and cancer adjacent normal testicular tissue. Although the expression of CAS was not significantly different between normal testicular tissue and seminoma, CAS was more enriched in cytoplasm in seminoma compared to the normal, cancer adjacent tissue and other types of TGCTs. The current results demonstrated reduced expression of CAS in the human testicular germ cell tumors and the CAS translocation from the nuclear to cytoplasm in seminoma, thereby supporting a possible role in normal testis function and in the development of seminoma.
KeywordsCAS Testicular germ cell tumors
HC and KPG conceived and designed the experiments. JNL, RGH, MY, HZ, XW, and HRG performed the experiments and analyzed the data. YTG and XFL collected the TGCTs. FHL and ZJZ gave intellectual advice and revised the manuscript. JNL and HC wrote the paper.
This work was supported in part by grants from the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2018YFC1003600); National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 81671432, 81871202); Health and Medical Research Fund of Hong Kong (Grant No. 06170476); and the startup R&D funding of Guangdong University of Technology (Grant No. 220418118).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The project was approved by the Ethic Committee of The Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University.
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