Medical Oncology

, 35:139 | Cite as

Prophylactic aprepitant is better than salvage for carboplatin-based chemotherapy: a propensity score-matched analysis

  • Masato Karayama
  • Naoki InuiEmail author
  • Kazuki Tanaka
  • Hideki Yasui
  • Hironao Hozumi
  • Yuzo Suzuki
  • Kazuki Furuhashi
  • Tomoyuki Fujisawa
  • Noriyuki Enomoto
  • Yutaro Nakamura
  • Takafumi Suda
Original Paper


Aprepitant prevents chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in carboplatin-containing chemotherapy. However, it is unknown whether aprepitant salvage therapy after the development of emesis is as effective as adding prophylactic aprepitant to doublet therapy with dexamethasone and a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist from the first cycle of chemotherapy. To compare the antiemetic efficacy of aprepitant between salvage and prophylactic administration in the second cycle of carboplatin-containing chemotherapy, twenty-two NSCLC patients who developed CINV in the first cycle of carboplatin-containing therapy without aprepitant (salvage group) and 44 patients who received aprepitant (prophylaxis group) were extracted from the pooled data of two clinical trials, with adjustment for age, sex, and chemotherapeutic regimen as co-variables using propensity score matching. In the second cycle of chemotherapy, both groups received aprepitant, and the rate of antiemetic complete response (no vomiting and no rescue therapy) at 5 days after chemotherapy was compared. The prophylaxis group demonstrated a significantly better overall complete response rate (88.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 75.4–96.2) compared with that of observed for the salvage group (68.2%; 95% CI 45.1–86.1, p = 0.042). The prophylaxis group also demonstrated a significantly lower proportion of any-grade nausea (43.2%) and appetite loss (43.2%) than the salvage group (72.7%, p = 0.036 and 77.3%, p = 0.010, respectively). Adding aprepitant to doublet therapy from the first cycle of carboplatin-containing chemotherapy may be more effective than salvage use of aprepitant after the development of CINV.


Antiemesis Aprepitant Carboplatin Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting Moderately emetogenic chemotherapy 



We thank James P. Mahaffey, PhD, from Edanz Group ( for editing a draft of this manuscript.


This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in the study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

12032_2018_1199_MOESM1_ESM.docx (20 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 20 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masato Karayama
    • 1
    • 2
  • Naoki Inui
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Kazuki Tanaka
    • 1
  • Hideki Yasui
    • 1
  • Hironao Hozumi
    • 1
  • Yuzo Suzuki
    • 1
  • Kazuki Furuhashi
    • 1
  • Tomoyuki Fujisawa
    • 1
  • Noriyuki Enomoto
    • 1
  • Yutaro Nakamura
    • 1
  • Takafumi Suda
    • 1
  1. 1.Second Division, Department of Internal MedicineHamamatsu University School of MedicineHamamatsuJapan
  2. 2.Department of Clinical OncologyHamamatsu University School of MedicineHamamatsuJapan
  3. 3.Department of Clinical Pharmacology and TherapeuticsHamamatsu University School of MedicineHamamatsuJapan

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