Medical Oncology

, 34:174 | Cite as

Yttrium-90 radioembolization treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma: a single-centre prognostic factors analysis

  • C. Floridi
  • F. Pesapane
  • S. A. Angileri
  • D. De Palma
  • F. Fontana
  • F. Caspani
  • A. Barile
  • A. Del Sole
  • C. Masciocchi
  • G. Lucignani
  • G. Carrafiello
Original Paper


The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of Y90 radioembolization (Y90-RE) in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) analysing our results and correlating them with independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) and for complications. Forty-three patients with advanced inoperable HCC including those with multiple bilobar lesions or portal vein thrombosis (PVT) treated with Y90-RE were reviewed. Treatment efficacy and safety were evaluated. Survival was calculated by the Kaplan–Meier method. Univariate analyses were performed for identifying potential prognostic factors. Radiologic response was evaluated with the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (mRECIST) criteria. Clinical toxicities were prospectively recorded. Median overall progression-free survival and OS were 27.7 and 16.8 months, respectively. Longer median OS was revealed in those without PVT (p = 0.0241) and those whose pre-treatment haemoglobin values was higher (p = 0.0471). According with mRECIST criteria, we observed a disease control rate of 69.2 and 61.9% at 3- and 6-month follow-up, respectively. Complications developed in 28 patients (65.1%), among which grade 2–3 events were reported in 17 patients. We noted that activity administered dose presented a correlation with intra-procedural toxicity (p = 0.039259) while common hepatic artery use as release site was associated with a most frequent presentation of remote adverse events. Y90-RE is an alternative treatment with a promising outcome for poor-risk advanced inoperable HCC. PVT and pre-treatment haemoglobin values can be predictors of efficacy. Activity administered dose and arterial release site can be predictors of safety.


Radioembolization Yttrium-90 Hepatocellular carcinoma Liver cancer Interventional radiology 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Floridi
    • 1
  • F. Pesapane
    • 2
  • S. A. Angileri
    • 2
  • D. De Palma
    • 3
  • F. Fontana
    • 1
  • F. Caspani
    • 4
  • A. Barile
    • 5
  • A. Del Sole
    • 6
  • C. Masciocchi
    • 5
  • G. Lucignani
    • 6
  • G. Carrafiello
    • 2
  1. 1.Radiology DepartmentFatebenefratelli HospitalMilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of Health Sciences, Diagnostic and Interventional RadiologyASST Santi Paolo e Carlo, University of MilanMilanItaly
  3. 3.Department of Nuclear MedicineCircolo e Fondazione Macchi HospitalVareseItaly
  4. 4.Oncology DepartmentCircolo e Fondazione Macchi Hospital, Insubria UniversityVareseItaly
  5. 5.Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical SciencesUniversity of l’AquilaL’AquilaItaly
  6. 6.Nuclear Medicine UnitASST Santi Paolo e Carlo, University of MilanMilanItaly

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