Advertisement

Medical Oncology

, 33:81 | Cite as

Medical hospitalizations in prostate cancer survivors

  • Jerome GnanarajEmail author
  • Shobana Balakrishnan
  • Zarish Umar
  • Emmanuel S. Antonarakis
  • Christian P. Pavlovich
  • Scott M. Wright
  • Waseem Khaliq
Original Paper

Abstract

The objectives of the study were to explore the context and reasons for medical hospitalizations among prostate cancer survivors and to study their relationship with obesity and the type of prostate cancer treatment. A retrospective review of medical records was performed at an academic institution for male patients aged 40 years and older who were diagnosed and/or treated for prostate cancer 2 years prior to the study’s observation period from January 2008 to December 2010. Unpaired t test, ANOVA, and Chi-square tests were used to compare patients’ characteristics, admission types, and medical comorbidities by body mass index (BMI) and prostate cancer treatment. Mean age for the study population was 76 years (SD = 9.2). Two hundred and forty-five prostate cancer survivors were stratified into two groups: non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m2) and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). The study population’s characteristics analyzed by BMI were similar including Gleason score, presence of metastatic disease and genitourinary-related side effects. Only 13 % of admissions were for complaints related to their genitourinary system. Neither the specific treatment that the patients had received for their prostate cancer, nor obesity was associated with the reasons for their medical admission. Survivorship after having a diagnosis of prostate cancer is often lengthy, and these men are at risk of being hospitalized, as they get older. From this inquiry, it has become clear that neither body mass index nor prior therapy is associated with specific admission characteristics, and only a minority of such admissions was directly related to prostate cancer or the genitourinary tract.

Keywords

Medical hospitalizations Obesity Prostate cancer survivors Prostate cancer treatments 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interests

No conflict of interests exists.

References

  1. 1.
    Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2016. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians; 2016. doi: 10.3322/caac.21332.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    American Cancer Society Cancer Treatment & Survivorship Facts & Figures 2014–2015. (http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@research/documents/document/acspc-042801.pdf).
  3. 3.
    DeSantis CE, Lin CC, Mariotto AB, Siegel RL, Stein KD, Kramer JL, et al. Cancer treatment and survivorship statistics. CA Cancer J Clin. 2014;64:252–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Grant WB. Cause of death in older men after the diagnosis of prostate cancer. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57:934–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Robinson D, Aus G, Bak J, Gorecki T, Herder A, Rosell J, et al. Long-term follow-up of conservatively managed incidental carcinoma of the prostate: a multivariate analysis of prognostic factors. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2007;41:103–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    National Comprehensive Cancer network Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/prostate.pdf.
  7. 7.
    Sanda MG, Dunn RL, Michalski J, Sandler HM, Northouse L, Hembroff L, et al. Quality of life and satisfaction with outcome among prostate-cancer survivors. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:1250–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Madalinska JB, Essink-Bot ME, de Koning HJ, Kirkels WJ, van der Maas PJ, Schröder FH. Health-related quality-of-life effects of radical prostatectomy and primary radiotherapy for screen-detected or clinically diagnosed localized prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19:1619–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sinfield P, Baker R, Agarwal S, Tarrant C. Patient-centred care: what are the experiences of prostate cancer patients and their partners? Patient Educ Couns. 2008;73:91–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cao Yin, Ma Jing. Body mass index, prostate cancer-specific mortality, and biochemical recurrence: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011;4:486–501.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Allott EH, Masko EM, Freedland SJ. Obesity and prostate cancer: weighing the evidence. Eur Urol. 2013;63:800–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Charlson ME, Pompei P, Ales KL, MacKenzie CR. A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation. J Chronic Dis. 1987;40:373–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Doi H, Ishimaru F, Tanooka M, Inoue H, Odawara S, Takada Y, et al. Body mass index can affect gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity in patients with prostate cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy. Oncol Lett. 2014;7:209–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pardo Y, Guedea F, Aguiló F, Fernández P, Macías V, Mariño A, et al. Quality-of-life impact of primary treatments for localized prostate cancer in patients without hormonal treatment. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:4687–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Elliott SP, McAninch JW, Chi T, Doyle SM, Master VA. Management of severe urethral complications of prostate cancer therapy. J Urol. 2006;176:2508–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Prabhu V, Sivarajan G, Taksler GB, Laze J, Lepor H. Long-term continence outcomes in men undergoing radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2014;65:52–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gore JL, Kwan L, Lee SP, Reiter RE, Litwin MS. Survivorship beyond convalescence: 48-month quality-of-life outcomes after treatment for localized prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101:888–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Thompson I, Thrasher JB, Aus G, Burnett AL, Canby-Hagino ED, Cookson MS, et al. Guideline for the management of clinically localized prostate cancer: 2007 update. J Urol. 2007;177:2106–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sooriakumaran P, Nyberg T, Akre O, Haendler L, Heus I, Olsson M, et al. Comparative effectiveness of radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy in prostate cancer: observational study of mortality outcomes. BMJ. 2014;348:1502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jerome Gnanaraj
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shobana Balakrishnan
    • 2
  • Zarish Umar
    • 3
  • Emmanuel S. Antonarakis
    • 4
  • Christian P. Pavlovich
    • 5
  • Scott M. Wright
    • 1
  • Waseem Khaliq
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, School of MedicineJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of General SurgeryRoyal Lancaster InfirmaryLancasterUK
  3. 3.Department of MedicineQueens Hospital CenterJamaicaUSA
  4. 4.Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, School of MedicineJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  5. 5.Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, School of Medicine, Brady Urological InstituteJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations