High Levels of Glycosaminoglycans in the Urines of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Abstract

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral/neurodevelopmental disorder. Some early studies indicated that increased intake of added sugars might have a role in ADHD. In the present study, we tested this possibility by evaluating the urinary excretion of oligosaccharides and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in ADHD and control subjects. Forty ADHD subjects matched with 34 controls were enrolled in the study. The subjects underwent a standardized dietary regimen. The urine levels of oligosaccharides and GAGs were quantified biochemically, and their covariance and association were evaluated statistically. Fructose (21/40, 52.5%), maltose (26/40, 65%), galactose (30/40, 75%), and lactose (38/40, 95%) excretions were frequently found in the urine of ADHD subjects (p < 0.05), an excretion which does not occur normally. Furthermore, these subjects showed a pathologic tGAG (glycosaminoglycan) excretion (40/40, 100%). The present study supports the thesis that carbohydrate metabolism differs in ADHD subjects compared with control subjects.

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Acknowledgments

The authors thank Dénes Kövendi M.D. and Éva Sátorhegyi M.D. for the assistance of diagnosis.

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Correspondence to Geir Bjørklund or Monica Daniela Doşa.

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Endreffy, I., Bjørklund, G., Urbina, M.A. et al. High Levels of Glycosaminoglycans in the Urines of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). J Mol Neurosci 70, 1018–1025 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12031-020-01496-w

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Keywords

  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  • Carbohydrates
  • Glycosaminoglycans
  • Metabolic
  • Chromatography