Altered S100 Calcium-Binding Protein B and Matrix Metallopeptidase 9 as Biomarkers of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Hippocampus Sclerosis
- 103 Downloads
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) associated with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most common form of partial epilepsy. The aim of the present study is to highlight possible and suitable biomarkers that can help in the diagnosis and prognosis of this intractable form of epilepsy. The study was carried out on 30 epileptic patients of both sexes with complex partial seizures, having an age ranging from 4 to 30 years and were selected from the outpatient epilepsy clinic at the Kasr El-Aini Hospital in Cairo, Egypt. Thirty healthy children and young adults, age- and sex-matched to the patients, were included in the study as controls. Patients with epilepsy and healthy controls were subjected to a set of laboratory analyses including S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B), matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), C-reactive protein (CRP), and prolactin (PRL), in addition to neurophysiological, radiological, and psychometric assessments, on the basis of the recent evidence of the field. The results of this study showed a marked increase in the investigated biomarkers in patients with epilepsy compared to controls. The performance of the epileptic patients in psychometric assessments was below the average threshold, with the MRI analysis showing specific findings of mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) and EEG showing anterior temporal spikes. A significant negative correlation was found between MMP9 and psychometric test. On the other hand, a significant positive correlation was observed between seizure severity and the indicated biomarker. The present study suggests that S100B and MMP9 could be used as biomarkers for neuronal injury and helps in the prognosis of MTLE.
KeywordsMesial temporal lobe epilepsy Hippocampal sclerosis S100 calcium-binding protein B Matrix metallopeptidase 9 Prolactin
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
All procedures performed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee, and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
- Albeanu AG, Magureanu S, Lagae L (2012) The typical features of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis in children. Rom J Neurol 11:127–134Google Scholar
- El Missiry A (2003) Homicide and psychiatric illness: an Egyptian study. Dissertation, Ain Shams University, CairoGoogle Scholar
- First MB, Spitzer RL, Williams JB (1995) Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I): user’s guide and interview, research version. Biometrics, Research Department, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Fogarasi A, Arzimanoglou A (2011) The clinical syndrome of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy in children. In: Rosenow F, Ryvlin P, Lüders HO (eds) The mesial temporal lobe epilepsies. John Libbey Eurotext, Montrouge, pp 93–105Google Scholar
- Ghanem MH, Ibrahim M, El-Behairy AA, El Merghany H (2000) Mini international neuropsychiatric interview for children/adolescents (M.I.N.I. Kid), Arabic version, 1st edn. Institute of Psychiatry, Ain Shams University, CairoGoogle Scholar
- Shapiro LA, Bialowas-McGoey LA, Whitaker-Azmitia PM (2010) Effects of S100B on serotonergic plasticity and neuroinflammation in the hippocampus in down syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease: studies in an S100B overexpressing mouse model. Cardiovasc Psychiatry Neurol 2010:153657. https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/153657 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Sheehan DV, Janavs J (1998) Mini international neuropsychiatric interview for children/adolescents (M.I.N.I. Kid). University of South Florida College of Medicine, TampaGoogle Scholar
- Wechsler D (1996) Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition. WISC-III. Psychological Corporation, San Antonio Google Scholar
- Wechsler D (1997) WAIS-III: Wechsler adult intelligence scale. Psychological Corporation, San AntonioGoogle Scholar
- Wechsler D (2004) The Wechsler intelligence scale for children, 4th edn. Pearson, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Wilczynski GM, Konopacki FA, Wilczek E, Lasiecka Z, Gorlewicz A, Michaluk P, Wawrzyniak M, Malinowska M, Okulski P, Kolodziej LR, Konopka W, Duniec K, Mioduszewska B, Nikolaev E, Walczak A, Owczarek D, Gorecki DC, Zuschratter W, Ottersen OP, Kaczmarek L (2008) Important role of matrix metalloproteinase 9 in epileptogenesis. J Cell Biol 180:1021–1135CrossRefGoogle Scholar