Skip to main content


Log in

Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising from Perianal Buschke-Lowenstein Tumor (Giant Condyloma Acuminatum): Comprehensive Literature Review

  • Review Article
  • Published:
Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer Aims and scope Submit manuscript



This study aims to provide an overview of the literature on carcinoma arising from giant perianal condyloma acuminatum.


We present a new case of squamous cell carcinoma arising from giant perianal condyloma acuminatum. We also conducted a systematic search of the medical literature using PubMed, Medline, Google, and Google Scholar related to carcinoma arising from giant perianal condyloma acuminatum. The following search terms were used in various combinations: condyloma acuminatum, giant condyloma acuminatum, Buschke-Lowenstein tumor, squamous cell carcinoma, and verrucous carcinoma. The search included articles published before in the English language November 2020.


A total of 55 article concerning 97 patients with carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma, verrucous carcinoma, basaloid cell carcinoma, carcinoma insitu) arising from giant perianal condyloma acuminatum meeting the aforementioned criteria were included. The patients were aged from 24 to 82 years (median: 49.6, IQR: 21); 20 were female (median age: 52.5, IQR: 20.5), and 75 were male (median age: 53, IQR: 17.5). The gender data of the remaining two patients could not be obtained. The histopathological features of tumors arising from giant condyloma acuminatum are as follows: squamous cell carcinoma (n = 56), squamous cell carcinoma in situ (n = 16), verrucous carcinoma (n = 19) and basaloid cell carcinoma (n = 1), squamous cell carcinoma + verrucous carcinoma (n = 1), squamous cell carcinoma + squamous cell carcinoma in situ (n = 1), squamous cell carcinoma + basaloid cell carcinoma (n = 1) and malignant behavior (n = 2).


Giant condyloma acuminatum is a rare variant of anogenital warts. It is known that this tumor, which is mostly thought to be benign, has a high potential for local recurrence and transformation into invasive cancer. Therefore, it is vital that the tumor is resected with clean surgical margins, even if it looks benign, and that aggressive treatment options are not avoided when necessary.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Similar content being viewed by others

Availability of Data and Material

Data sharing is not applicable to this article as no new data were created.

Code Availability

Not applicable.


  1. Luchtefeld MA. Perianal condylomata acuminata. Surg Clin North Am. 1994;74:1327–38.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Puy-Montbrun T, Denis J, Ganansia R, Mathoniere F, Lemarchand N, Arnous-Dubois N. Anorectal lesions in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Int J Colorectal Dis. 1992;7:26–30.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Kibrité A, Zeitouni NC, Cloutier R. Aggressive giant condyloma acuminatum associated with oncogenic human papilloma virus: a case report. Can J Surg. 1997;40:143–5.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. Patel H, Wagner M, Singhal P, Kothari S. Systematic review of the incidence and prevalence of genital warts. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:39.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  5. Renzi A, Giordano P, Renzi G, Landolfi V, Del Genio A, Weiss EG. Buschke-Lowenstein tumor successful treatment by surgical excision alone: a case report. Surg Innov. 2006;13:69–72.

  6. Chaidemenos G, Kogia M, Souparis A, Kastoridou C, Karakatsanis G, Xenidis E, Mourellou O. Radical excision and mesh-skin grafting for giant anorectal condyloma acuminatum. Dermatol Surg. 2006;32:324–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Fanget F, Pasquer A, Djeudji F, Chabanon J, Barth X. Should the surgical management of Buschke-Lowenstein tumors be aggressive? About 10 Cases. Dig Surg. 2017;34:247–52.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Ahsaini M, Tahiri Y, Tazi MF, Elammari J, Mellas S, Khallouk A, El Fassi MJ, Farih MH, Elfatmi H, Amarti A, Stuurman-Wieringa RE. Verrucous carcinoma arising in an extended giant condyloma acuminatum (Buschke-Löwenstein tumor): a case report and review of the literature. J Med Case Rep. 2013;7:273.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  9. Chu QD, Vezeridis MP, Libbey NP, Wanebo HJ. Giant condyloma acuminatum (Buschke-Lowenstein tumor) of the anorectal and perianal regions. Analysis of 42 cases. Dis Colon Rectum. 1994;37:950–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Nordsiek M, Ross C, Metro M. Successful surgical management of Giant Condyloma Acuminatum (Buschke Lowenstein Tumor) in the urethra of a female patient: a case report. Curr Urol. 2015;8:49–52.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  11. Blomberg M, Friis S, Munk C, Bautz A, Kjaer SK. Genital warts and risk of cancer: a Danish study of nearly 50 000 patients with genital warts. J Infect Dis. 2012;205:1544–53.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Schlecht HP, Fugelso DK, Murphy RK, Wagner KT, Doweiko JP, Proper J, Dezube BJ, Panther LA. Frequency of occult high-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancer within anal condylomata in men who have sex with men. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51:107–10.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Park IU, Introcaso C, Dunne EF. Human papillomavirus and genital warts: a review of the evidence for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61:S849–55.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Heck DV, Yee CL, Howley PM, Münger K. Efficiency of binding the retinoblastoma protein correlates with the transforming capacity of the E7 oncoproteins of the human papillomaviruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:4442–6.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. Orlando G, Fasolo MM, Beretta R, Merli S, Cargnel A. Combined surgery and cidofovir is an effective treatment for genital warts in HIV-infected patients. AIDS. 2002;16:447–450.

  16. Tytherleigh MG, Birtle AJ, Cohen CE, Glynne-Jones R, Livingstone J, Gilbert J. Combined surgery and chemoradiation as a treatment for the Buschke-Löwenstein tumour. Surgeon. 2006;4:378–83.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. De Toma G, Cavallaro G, Bitonti A, Polistena A, Onesti MG, Scuderi N. Surgical management of perianal giant condyloma acuminatum (Buschke-Löwenstein tumor). Report of three cases. Eur Surg Res. 2006;38:418–22.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Murray ML, Meadows J, Doré CJ, Copas AJ, Haddow LJ, Lacey C, Jit M, Soldan K, Bennett K, Tetlow M, Nathan M, Gilson R. Human papillomavirus infection: protocol for a randomised controlled trial of imiquimod cream (5%) versus podophyllotoxin cream (0.15%), in combination with quadrivalent human papillomavirus or control vaccination in the treatment and prevention of recurrence of anogenital warts (HIPvac trial). BMC Med Res Methodol. 2018;18:125.

  19. Shi H, Zhang X, Ma C, Yu N, Wang J, Xia L, Ge X, Liu M, Duan A. Clinical analysis of five methods used to treat condylomata acuminata. Dermatology. 2013;227:338–345.

  20. Manzione Tda S, Nadal SR, Calore EE, Nadal LR, Manzione CR. Local control of human papillomavirus infection after anal condylomata acuminata eradication. Rev Col Bras Cir. 2014;41:87–91.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Protasov AD, Lipatov IS, Kostinov MP, Tezikov YV, Shmitko AD, Pakhomov DV, Blagovidov DA, Zhestkov AV, Ryzhov AA, Vekhova EV. Anogenital warts: a new way of solving the common problem of urology (results of long-term follow-up). Urologiia. 2016;5:47–51.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Swedish KA, Factor SH, Goldstone SE. Prevention of recurrent high-grade anal neoplasia with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination of men who have sex with men: a nonconcurrent cohort study. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54:891–8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Garbuglia AR, Lapa D, Sias C, Capobianchi MR, Del Porto P. The use of both therapeutic and prophylactic vaccines in the therapy of papillomavirus disease. Front Immunol. 2020;11:188.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



Ates M, Akbulut S, Karabulut E, and Sarici KB conceived and designed research. Akbulut S, Ates M, Tuncer A, and Sahin E conducted the research. Karabulut E, Tuncer A, Sahin E, and Akbulut S contributed to data extraction. All authors wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sami Akbulut.

Ethics declarations

Ethics Approval

Not applicable.

Consent to Participate

Not applicable.

Competing Interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary Information

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file1 (DOCX 21 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ates, M., Akbulut, S., Tuncer, A. et al. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising from Perianal Buschke-Lowenstein Tumor (Giant Condyloma Acuminatum): Comprehensive Literature Review. J Gastrointest Canc 53, 1083–1092 (2022).

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: