Intratumoral Heterogeneity of SMAD4 Immunohistochemical Expression and Its Role in Prediction of Recurrence Pattern in Patients with Resectable Pancreatic Cancer
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The aim of our study was to evaluate consistency of SMAD4 expression in different tumor areas and its correlation with recurrence pattern in patients after resection for pancreatic cancer (PC).
Records of patients who underwent resection for nonmetastatic PC between 2001 and 2015 were analyzed. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from different areas of primary tumor and lymph node metastases were analyzed immunohistochemically (IHC) for SMAD4 expression using TMA technology.
SMAD4 expression was assessed in 356 tissue sections obtained from 91 patients. SMAD4 expression was positive in all assessed tumor slides only in 7 of 26 patients (26.9%). There were 54 recurrences (9 locoregional, 41 distant, and 4 both local and distant) with median follow-up of 21.7 months. There was no correlation between SMAD4 expression and locoregional recurrence pattern (p = 0.30). SMAD4 status influenced neither distant recurrence-free survival (p = 0.99) nor overall survival (p = 0.13).
Different areas inside primary tumor and lymph node metastases express SMAD4 heterogeneously. SMAD4 IHC expression is not a biomarker of the recurrence pattern after surgical resection for PC.
KeywordsPancreatic neoplasms Smad4 protein Recurrence pattern
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The study was funded by N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center. No other support was done.
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