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Intracranial Hypertension After Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Prevalence and Mortality Rate

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intracranial hypertension (IHT) and the associated mortality rate in patients who suffered from primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). A secondary objective was to assess predisposing factors to IHT development. We conducted a systematic literature search of major electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library), for studies that assessed intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring in patients with acute ICH. Study level and outcome measures were extracted. The meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model. A total of six studies comprising 381 patients were pooled to estimate the overall prevalence of any episode of IHT (ICP > 20 mmHg) after ICH. The pooled prevalence rate for any episode of IHT after ICH was 67% (95% CI 51–84%). Four studies comprising 239 patients were pooled in order to estimate the overall mortality rate associated with IHT. Pooled mortality rate was 50% (95% CI 24–76%). For both outcomes, heterogeneity was statistically significant, and risk of bias was nonsignificant. Reported variables correlated significantly with increased ICP were lower Glasgow Coma Scale score at admission, midline shift, hemorrhage volume, and hydrocephalus. The prevalence and mortality rates associated with IHT after ICH are high and may be underestimated. Predicting factors for the development of IHT reflect the magnitude of the primary injury. However, the results of present meta-analysis should be interpreted with caution due to methodological limitations such as selection bias of patients who had ICP monitoring, and lack of standardized IHT definition.

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Abbreviations

ICH:

Intracerebral hemorrhage

ICP:

Intracranial pressure

GOS:

Glasgow Outcome Scale

IHT:

Intracranial hypertension

EVD:

External ventricular drain

IVH:

Intraventricular hemorrhage

CSF:

Cerebrospinal fluid

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Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

DAG: design of the study, definition of intellectual content, literature search, data acquisition, data analysis, manuscript editing and manuscript preparation. RAN: design of the study, definition of intellectual content, literature search, data acquisition, data analysis, statistical analyses, manuscript editing and manuscript preparation. AZ: design of the study, data analysis, statistical analyses and manuscript editing. WCZ, JCH: definition of intellectual content, data acquisition, data analysis and manuscript editing.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Daniel Agustín Godoy.

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Conflict of interest

Daniel A. Godoy, Rafael A. Núñez-Patiño, Andres Zorrilla-Vaca and J. Claude Hemphill declares that they have no conflict of interest and Dr. Ziai reports personal fees from Headsense, Inc., outside the submitted work.

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Godoy, D.A., Núñez-Patiño, R.A., Zorrilla-Vaca, A. et al. Intracranial Hypertension After Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Prevalence and Mortality Rate. Neurocrit Care 31, 176–187 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12028-018-0658-x

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Keywords

  • Intracerebral hemorrhage
  • Intracranial hypertension
  • Intracranial pressure
  • Meta-analysis
  • Prevalence
  • Mortality