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Monitoring of Cerebral Autoregulation

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Pressure autoregulation is an important hemodynamic mechanism that protects the brain against inappropriate fluctuations in cerebral blood flow in the face of changing cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). Static autoregulation represents how far cerebrovascular resistance changes when CPP varies, and dynamic autoregulation represents how fast these changes happen. Both have been monitored in the setting of neurocritical care to aid prognostication and contribute to individualizing CPP targets in patients. Failure of autoregulation is associated with a worse outcome in various acute neurological diseases. Several studies have used transcranial Doppler ultrasound, intracranial pressure (ICP with vascular reactivity as surrogate measure of autoregulation), and near-infrared spectroscopy to continuously monitor the impact of spontaneous fluctuations in CPP on cerebrovascular physiology and to calculate derived variables of autoregulatory efficiency. Many patients who undergo such monitoring demonstrate a range of CPP in which autoregulatory efficiency is optimal. Management of patients at or near this optimal level of CPP is associated with better outcomes in traumatic brain injury. Many of these studies have utilized the concept of the pressure reactivity index, a correlation coefficient between ICP and mean arterial pressure. While further studies are needed, these data suggest that monitoring of autoregulation could aid prognostication and may help identify optimal CPP levels in individual patients.

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Conflict of interest

Most of autoregulation monitoring methods is encapsulated in ICM+ software (, licensed by Cambridge Enterprise Ltd, UK. MC has a financial interest in a fraction (10%) of licensing fee.

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Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Marek Czosnyka.

Additional information

The Participants in the International Multidisciplinary Consensus Conference on Multimodality Monitoring are listed in “Appendix”.

Appendix: Participants in the International Multi-disciplinary Consensus Conference on Multimodality Monitoring

Appendix: Participants in the International Multi-disciplinary Consensus Conference on Multimodality Monitoring

Peter Le Roux, MD, FACS,

Brain and Spine Center,

Lankenau Medical Center,

Suite 370, Medical Science Building,

100 East Lancaster Avenue, Wynnewood, PA 19096, USA.

Tel: +1 610 642 3005;

Fax: 610 642 3057


Head, Division of Anaesthesia, University of Cambridge

Consultant, Neurosciences Critical Care Unit

Box 93, Addenbrooke’s Hospital,

Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK

Paul Vespa, MD, FCCM, FAAN, FNCS

Professor of Neurology and Neurosurgery

Director of Neurocritical Care

David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA

Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA

Giuseppe Citerio,

Director NeuroIntensive Care Unit,

Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care

Ospedale San Gerardo, Monza.

Via Pergolesi 33, Monza 20900, Italy

Mary Kay Bader RN, MSN, CCNS, FAHA, FNCS

Neuro/Critical Care CNS

Mission Hospital

Mission Viejo CA 92691, USA

Gretchen M. Brophy, PharmD, BCPS, FCCP, FCCM

Professor of Pharmacotherapy & Outcomes Science and Neurosurgery

Virginia Commonwealth University

Medical College of Virginia Campus

410 N. 12th Street

Richmond, Virginia 23298-0533 USA

Michael N. Diringer, MD

Professor of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Anesthesiology

Chief, Neurocritical Care Section

Washington University

Dept. of Neurology, Campus Box 8111

660 S Euclid Ave

St Louis, MO 63110 USA

Nino Stocchetti, MD

Professor of Anesthesia and Intensive Care

Department of physiopathology and transplant,

Milan University

Director Neuro ICU

Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico

Via F Sforza, 35 20122 Milan Italy


Walter Videtta, MD

ICU Neurocritical Care

Hospital Nacional ‘Prof. a. Posadas’

El Palomar - Pcia. de Buenos Aires


Rocco Armonda, MD

Department of Neurosurgery

MedStar Georgetown University Hospital

Medstar Health, 3800 Reservoir Road NW

Washington DC 20007


Neeraj Badjatia, MD

Department of Neurology

University of Maryland Medical Center,

22 S Greene St

Baltimore, MD, 21201


Julian Boesel, MD

Department of Neurology

Ruprect-Karls University

Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400,

D-69120 Heidelberg,


Randal Chesnut, MD, FCCM, FACS

Harborview Medical Center,

University of Washington Mailstop 359766

325 Ninth Ave,

Seattle WA 98104-2499


Sherry Chou, MD, MMSc

Department of Neurology,

Brigham and Women’s Hospital

75 Francis Street,

Boston MA 02115


Jan Claassen, MD, PhD, FNCS

Assistant Professor of Neurology and Neurosurgery

Head of Neurocritical Care and Medical Director of the Neurological Intensive Care Unit

Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons

177 Fort Washington Avenue, Milstein 8 Center room 300,

New York, NY 10032


Marek Czosnyka, PhD

Professor of Brain Physics

Department of Clinical Neurosciences

University of Cambridge,

Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Box 167

Cambridge, CB20QQ

United Kingdom

Michael De Georgia, MD

Professor of Neurology

Director, Neurocritical Care Center

Co-Director, Cerebrovascular Center

University Hospital Case Medical Center

Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine

11100 Euclid Avenue

Cleveland, Ohio 44106

Anthony Figaji, MD, PhD

Head of Pediatric Neurosurgery

University of Cape Town

617 Institute for Child Health

Red Cross Children’s Hospital

Rondebosch, 7700 Cape Town,

South Africa

Jennifer Fugate, DO

Department of Neurology,

Mayo Clinic,

200 First Street SW

Rochester, MN 55905

Raimund Helbok, MD, PD

Department of Neurology, Neurocritical Care Unit

Innsbruck Medical University,

Anichstr.35, 6020



David Horowitz, MD

Associate Chief Medical Officer

University of Pennsylvania Health System,

3701 Market Street

Philadelphia, PA, 19104


Peter Hutchinson, MD

Professor of Neurosurgery

NIHR Research Professor

Department of Clinical Neurosciences

University of Cambridge

Box 167 Addenbrooke’s Hospital

Cambridge CB2 2QQ

United Kingdom

Monisha Kumar, MD

Department of Neurology

Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania,

3 West Gates

3400 Spruce Street

Philadelphia, PA, 19104


Molly McNett, RN, PhD

Director, Nursing Research

The MetroHealth System

2500 MetroHealth Drive,

Cleveland, OH 44109


Chad Miller, MD

Division of Cerebrovascular Diseases and Neurocritical Care

The Ohio State University

395 W. 12th Ave, 7th Floor

Columbus, OH 43210

Andrew Naidech, MD, MSPH

Department of Neurology

Northwestern University Feinberg SOM 710

N Lake Shore Drive, 11th floor

Chicago, IL 60611

Mauro Oddo, MD

Department of Intensive Care Medicine

CHUV University Hospital, BH 08-623

Faculty of Biology and Medicine University of Lausanne

1011 Lausanne, Switzerland

DaiWai Olson, RN, PhD

Associate Professor of Neurology, Neurotherapeutics and Neurosurgery

University of Texas Southwestern

5323 Harry Hines Blvd.

Dallas, TX 75390-8897


Kristine O’Phelan M.D.

Director of Neurocritical Care

Associate Professor, Department of Neurology

University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine

JMH, 1611 NW 12th Ave, Suite 405

Miami, FL, 33136


Javier Provencio, MD

Associate Professor of Medicine

Cerebrovascular Center and Neuroinflammation Research Center

Lerner College of Medicine

Cleveland Clinic,

9500 Euclid Ave, NC30

Cleveland, OH 44195


Corina Puppo, MD

Assistant Professor, Intensive Care Unit,

Hospital de Clinicas, Universidad de la República,



Richard Riker, MD

Critical Care Medicine

Maine Medical Center,

22 Bramhall Street

Portland, Maine 04102-3175


Claudia Robertson, MD

Department of Neurosurgery

Medical Director of Center for Neurosurgical Intensive Care,

Ben Taub Hospital

Baylor College of Medicine,

1504 Taub Loop, Houston, TX 77030


J. Michael Schmidt, PhD, MSc

Director of Neuro-ICU Monitoring and Informatics

Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons

Milstein Hospital 8 Garden South, Suite 331

177 Fort Washington Avenue,

New York, NY 10032


Fabio Taccone, MD

Department of Intensive Care, Laboratoire de Recherche Experimentale

Erasme Hospital,

Route de Lennik, 808

1070 Brussels


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Czosnyka, M., Miller, C. Monitoring of Cerebral Autoregulation. Neurocrit Care 21 (Suppl 2), 95–102 (2014).

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