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Pemphigus group: overview, epidemiology, mortality, and comorbidities

Abstract

Pemphigus forms a group of rare autoimmune bullous diseases that affect the skin and mucous membranes. This group has a chronic course leading to high morbidity and mortality. It is characterized by the production of pathogenic autoantibodies directed against different proteins of the desmosome, leading histologically to intraepidermal cleavage, and clinically to vesicles and erosions on the epithelium of the mucous membranes and/or the skin. The diagnosis of the subtype of pemphigus is based on clinical features, the level of histologic cleavage, and the identification of the antigens recognized by circulating autoantibodies by immunoserological analyses. The epidemiological features of pemphigus vary considerably in different regions of the world. Observational studies examining comorbidities and associations among patients with pemphigus are scarce and sometimes inconclusive. The prognosis, mortality, and clinical outcomes in pemphigus have undergone dramatic change throughout the years. This review provides a brief overview about the different subtypes of pemphigus: pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus foliaceus, paraneoplastic pemphigus, pemphigus herpetiformis, and IgA pemphigus. In addition, it summarizes the most recent understanding of the epidemiology, mortality data, and comorbidities of this group of organ-specific autoimmune diseases.

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Kridin, K. Pemphigus group: overview, epidemiology, mortality, and comorbidities. Immunol Res 66, 255–270 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12026-018-8986-7

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Keywords

  • Pemphigus
  • Pemphigus vulgaris
  • Pemphigus foliaceus
  • Paraneoplastic pemphigus
  • Pemphigus herpetiformis
  • IgA pemphigus
  • Epidemiology
  • Mortality
  • Comorbidities
  • Associations