Forensic Science, Medicine and Pathology

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 174–179 | Cite as

CXCL1 and CXCR2 as potential markers for vital reactions in skin contusions

  • Jie-Tao He
  • Hong-Yan Huang
  • Dong Qu
  • Ye Xue
  • Kai-kai Zhang
  • Xiao-Li Xie
  • Qi Wang
Original Article


Detection of the vitality of wounds is one of the most important issues in forensic practice. This study investigated mRNA and protein levels of CXCL1 and CXCR2 in skin wounds in mice and humans. Western blot analysis of CXCL1 and CXCR2 protein levels showed no difference between wounded and intact skin. However, mRNA levels demonstrated higher expression of CXCL1 and CXCR2 in contused mouse and human skin, compared with intact skin. At postmortem there were no remarkable changes in CXCL1 and CXCR2 mRNA levels in contused mouse skin. Increased mRNA expression was observed in contused mouse skin up to 96 h and 72 h after death for CXCL1 and CXCR2 respectively. In human samples of wounded skin, increased CXCL1 mRNA levels were detected up to 48 h after autopsy in all 5 cases, while increased CXCR2 mRNA levels were observed 48 h after autopsy in 4 of 5 cases. These findings suggest that the levels of CXCL1 and CXCR2 mRNA present in contused skin can be used as potential markers for a vital reaction in forensic practice.


Forensic pathology Skin contusion Vital reaction CXCL1 CXCR2 



This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81401556 and 81601641), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (No. 2014A030310504 and 2014A030310293), the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry(No.2015-311), and the Special Foundation of President of School of Public Health of Southern Medical University (Grant No.GW201619).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical approval

This study was reviewed and approved by the ethics committee of the Southern Medical University Institutional Board (Guangzhou, China). All sampling methods were carried out in accordance with regulations of Methods of extraction, fixation, packing and inspection of forensic pathology of The People’s Republic of China Public Safety Industry Standard (GA/T 148–1996) and Forensic pathology materials extraction, fixed operating instructions of Southern Medical University (NYSJ-JS-BL04).

Supplementary material

12024_2018_9969_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (13 kb)
ESM 1 (xlsx 12.6 KB)


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Forensic Pathology, School of Forensic MedicineSouthern Medical UniversityGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health and Tropical MedicineSouthern Medical UniversityGuangzhouChina

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