Virtopsy shows a high status funerary treatment in an early 18th Dynasty non-royal individual


This work presents the multidisciplinary investigation of the head of Nebiri (Museo Egizio, Turin S_5109), Chief of Stables, a high status elite person from the 18th Dynasty involving MDCT, 3D brain surface and facial reconstructions accompanied by a consideration of previously presented chemical analysis of the embalming materials found in fragments of bandages used on the head and viscera (lung) found in one of the four canopic jars. Comparison of the techniques used for the cosmetic treatment of Nebiri with those used in other elite and high status non-royal persons confirms the validity of the use of the term “high status elite” in the case of Nebiri. This case highlights the importance of using modern forensic techniques both to enhance new technologies of retrospective diagnosis on altered human remains and to increase knowledge of past populations.

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Correspondence to Robert D. Loynes.

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Loynes, R.D., Charlier, P., Froesch, P. et al. Virtopsy shows a high status funerary treatment in an early 18th Dynasty non-royal individual. Forensic Sci Med Pathol 13, 302–311 (2017).

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  • MDCT
  • 3D facial approximation
  • 3D brain surface reconstruction
  • Human remains