Virtopsy shows a high status funerary treatment in an early 18th Dynasty non-royal individual

  • Robert D. Loynes
  • Philippe Charlier
  • Philippe Froesch
  • Tobias M. R. Houlton
  • Rudy Lallo
  • Giancarlo Di Vella
  • Raffaella Bianucci
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s12024-017-9879-0

Cite this article as:
Loynes, R.D., Charlier, P., Froesch, P. et al. Forensic Sci Med Pathol (2017). doi:10.1007/s12024-017-9879-0


This work presents the multidisciplinary investigation of the head of Nebiri (Museo Egizio, Turin S_5109), Chief of Stables, a high status elite person from the 18th Dynasty involving MDCT, 3D brain surface and facial reconstructions accompanied by a consideration of previously presented chemical analysis of the embalming materials found in fragments of bandages used on the head and viscera (lung) found in one of the four canopic jars. Comparison of the techniques used for the cosmetic treatment of Nebiri with those used in other elite and high status non-royal persons confirms the validity of the use of the term “high status elite” in the case of Nebiri. This case highlights the importance of using modern forensic techniques both to enhance new technologies of retrospective diagnosis on altered human remains and to increase knowledge of past populations.


MDCT 3D facial approximation 3D brain surface reconstruction Human remains 

Funding information

Funder NameGrant NumberFunding Note
Acknowledgements Raffaella Bianucci is funded by Wellcome Trust (202792/Z/16/Z) but the present work is independent of it.

    Copyright information

    © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

    Authors and Affiliations

    1. 1.KNH Centre for Biomedical Egyptology, University of ManchesterManchesterUK
    2. 2.Section of Medical and Forensic Anthropology (UVSQ & Paris 5 University E4569)Montigny-Le-BretonneuxFrance
    3. 3.CASH (Centre d’accueil et de soins hospitaliers de Nanterre)NanterreFrance
    4. 4.Human Variation and Identification Research Unit, School of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of the WitwatersrandJohannesburgSouth Africa
    5. 5.Clinica Pinna PintorTurinItaly
    6. 6.Department of Public Health and Paediatric Sciences, Legal Medicine SectionUniversity of TurinTurinItaly
    7. 7.Warwick Medical School, Microbiology and Infection UnitThe University of WarwickCoventryUK
    8. 8.UMR 7268, Laboratoire d’Anthropologie bio-culturelle, Droit, Etique & Santé (Adés)Faculté de Médecine de MarseilleMarseilleFrance

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