A fatal outcome of pica

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6


  1. 1.

    Dorland’s illustrated medical dictionary. 31st ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2007. p. 1466.

  2. 2.

    Byard RW. A review of the forensic implications of pica. J Forensic Sci. 2014;59(5):1413–6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Yamaguchi Y, Terashima M, Nakao A, et al. To remove or not remove? Twenty or more sewing needles in the gastrointestinal tract. Acute Med Surg. 2014;1:250–1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Zouros E, Oikonomou D, Theoharis G, Bantias C, Papadimitropoulos K. Perforation of the cecum by a toothpick: report of a case and review of the literature. J Emerg Med. 2014;47(6):e133–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Goh BK, Chow PK, Quah HM, Ong HS, Eu KW, Ooi LL, et al. Perforation of the gastrointestinal tract secondary to ingestion of foreign bodies. World J Surg. 2006;30(3):372–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Baraka A, Bikhazi G. Oesophageal foreign bodies. Br Med J. 1975;1(5957):561–3.

    PubMed Central  Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Cangir AK, Tug T, Okten I. An unusual foreign body in the esophagus: report of a case. Surg Today. 2002;32(6):523–4.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Velitchkov NG, Grigorov GI, Losanoff JE, Kjossev KT. Ingested foreign bodies of the gastrointestinal tract: retrospective analysis of 542 cases. World J Surg. 1996;20(8):1001–5.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Hong KH, Kim YJ, Kim JH, Chun SW, Kim HM, Cho JH. Risk factors for complications associated with upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies. World J Gastroenterol. 2015;21(26):8125–31.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Dalal PP, Otey AJ, McGonagle EA, Whitmill ML, Levine EJ, McKimmie RL, et al. Intentional foreign object ingestions: need for endoscopy and surgery. J Surg Res. 2013;184(1):145–9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Barros JL, Caballero A Jr, Rueda JC, Monturiol JM. Foreign body ingestion: management of 167 cases. World J Surg. 1991;15(6):783–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Grimes IC, Spier BJ, Swize LR, Lindstrom MJ, Pfau PR. Predictors of recurrent ingestion of gastrointestinal foreign bodies. Can J Gastroenterol. 2013;27(1):e1–4.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Gracia C, Frey CF, Bodai BI. Diagnosis and management of ingested foreign bodies: a ten-year experience. Ann Emerg Med. 1984;13(1):30–4.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Eisen GM, Baron TH, Dominitz JA, Faigel DO, Goldstein JL, Johanson JF, et al. Guideline for the management of ingested foreign bodies. Gastrointest Endosc. 2002;55(7):802–6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Mantokoudis G, Hegner S, Dubach P, Bonel HM, Senn P, Caversaccio MD, et al. How reliable and safe is full-body low-dose radiography (LODOX Statscan) in detecting foreign bodies ingested by adults? Emerg Med J. 2013;30(7):559–64.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Donovan P. Loots.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Loots, D.P., du Toit-Prinsloo, L. A fatal outcome of pica. Forensic Sci Med Pathol 12, 108–112 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12024-015-9741-1

Download citation


  • Foreign Body
  • Eating Disorder
  • Razor Blade
  • Foreign Object
  • Prison Inmate