DNA and RNA analysis of blood and muscle from bodies with variable postmortem intervals

Abstract

The breakdown of DNA and RNA in decomposing human tissue represents a major obstacle for postmortem forensic molecular analysis. This study investigated the feasibility of performing PCR-based molecular analysis of blood and muscle tissue from 45 autopsy cases with defined postmortem intervals ranging from one to more than 14 days. It was not possible to collect blood from 38 % of the autopsy cases due to severe coagulation and hemolysis, whereas muscle tissue was available for all cases. PCR-amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 96 % of the frozen muscle specimens and from 93 % of the formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) muscle specimens. A quality assessment of muscle-derived DNA showed increased fragmentation with advancing body decomposition and generally more fragmentation in DNA from FFPE tissue than in DNA from frozen tissue. It was possible to amplify 1,000 basepair (bp) DNA fragments from all samples with postmortem intervals below 3 days whereas 400–600 bp long fragments typically could be amplified from the most decomposed muscle specimens. RNA was less stable than DNA in postmortem muscle tissue, yet selected mRNA molecules could be detected by reverse-transcriptase PCR in all samples up to 3 days after death. We conclude that analysis of DNA from bodies with a wide postmortem interval range is usually possible whereas the consistency of RNA analyses decreases considerably 3 days postmortem. We showed that muscle tissue is a highly usable source of DNA and RNA for postmortem forensic molecular analysis as well as for retrospective research projects based on archived FFPE specimens.

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Acknowledgements

This study received financial support from the “Augustinus” and the “Anna og Dagny Hjerrilds” foundations.

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Correspondence to Jakob Hansen.

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Hansen, J., Lesnikova, I., Funder, A.M.D. et al. DNA and RNA analysis of blood and muscle from bodies with variable postmortem intervals. Forensic Sci Med Pathol 10, 322–328 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12024-014-9567-2

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Keywords

  • Molecular pathology
  • Autopsy
  • Postmortem decomposition
  • DNA
  • RNA
  • PCR