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Pandora: 4-D White Matter Bundle Population-Based Atlases Derived from Diffusion MRI Fiber Tractography

Abstract

Brain atlases have proven to be valuable neuroscience tools for localizing regions of interest and performing statistical inferences on populations. Although many human brain atlases exist, most do not contain information about white matter structures, often neglecting them completely or labelling all white matter as a single homogenous substrate. While few white matter atlases do exist based on diffusion MRI fiber tractography, they are often limited to descriptions of white matter as spatially separate “regions” rather than as white matter “bundles” or fascicles, which are well-known to overlap throughout the brain. Additional limitations include small sample sizes, few white matter pathways, and the use of outdated diffusion models and techniques. Here, we present a new population-based collection of white matter atlases represented in both volumetric and surface coordinates in a standard space. These atlases are based on 2443 subjects, and include 216 white matter bundles derived from 6 different automated state-of-the-art tractography techniques. This atlas is freely available and will be a useful resource for parcellation and segmentation.

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Notes

  1. This name was chosen as a parallel to the JHU “Eve” atlas, where Pandora was the first woman in Greek mythology. Also, from Pandora’s box was released “evil” and only “hope” remained. Our Pandora’s “box” just happens to contain white matter labels.

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Acknowledgments

Research and Education at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health under award numbers R01EB017230 (B.A.L), and T32EB001628 (K.G.S.), R21 MH099218 (W.D.T), R01NS075270 (Victoria L. Morgan) and in part by VICTR VR3029 and the National Center for Research Resources, Grant UL1 RR024975-01, and Department of Defense award number W81XWH-17-2-055. This research was conducted with support from the Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, NIH. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH. This work was also supported by the Neuroinformatics Research Chair, Compute Canada, and NSERC Discovery grants of Prof Maxime Descoteaux.

Information Sharing

This atlas is freely available at https://www.nitrc.org/projects/pandora_atlas and https://github.com/MASILab/Pandora-WhiteMatterAtlas. All methods in atlas creation are available at https://github.com/MASILab/Pandora-Methods, including subject-level processing of tractography and registration, volumetric and surface atlas creation, and all QA generation and visualizations.

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Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

CH: conception, investigation, design, analysis, interpretation, writing, revisions; QY: conception, investigation, design, analysis, interpretation, writing, revisions; IL: conception, analysis; FR: conception, design, revisions; CK: investigation, design; BQ: investigation, design; SF: investigation, design; OW: revisions, data; AS: revisions, data; SR: revisions, data; DZ: revisions, data; LC: revisions, data; WT: revisions, data; BB: revisions, data; EG: investigation, design; AA: conception, design; BL: conception, design, analysis, acquisition, interpretation; KS: conception, investigation, design, analysis, interpretation, writing, revisions; MD: conception, design, revisions; KS: conception, investigation, design, analysis, interpretation, writing, revisions.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kurt G Schilling.

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Supplementary Information

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Appendix 1

Appendix 1

The bundles resulting from each bundle-segmentation pipeline are given as a list below.

AFQ: Corpus Callosum Forceps Major; Corpus Callosum Forceps Minor; Arcuate Fasciculus left; Cingulum-Cingulate Gyrus left; Cingulum-Hippocampal Gyrus left; Corticospinal Tract left; Inferior Occipito-frontal Fasciculus left; Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus left; Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus left; Thalamic Radiation left; Uncinate Fasciculus left; Arcuate Fasciculus right; Cingulum-Cingulate Gyrus right; Cingulum-Hippocampal Gyrus right; Corticospinal Tract right; Inferior Occipito-frontal Fasciculus right; Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus right; Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus right; Thalamic Radiation right; Uncinate Fasciculus right

AFQ-clipped: Corpus Callosum Forceps Major; Corpus Callosum Forceps Minor; Arcuate Fasciculus left; Cingulum-Cingulate Gyrus left; Cingulum-Hippocampal Gyrus left; Corticospinal Tract left; Inferior Occipito-frontal Fasciculus left; Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus left; Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus left; Thalamic Radiation left; Uncinate Fasciculus left; Arcuate Fasciculus right; Cingulum-Cingulate Gyrus right; Cingulum-Hippocampal Gyrus right; Corticospinal Tract right; Inferior Occipito-frontal Fasciculus right; Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus right; Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus right; Thalamic Radiation right; Uncinate Fasciculus right.

Recobundles: Arcuate Fasciculus left; Arcuate Fasciculus left; Frontal Aslant Tract left; Frontal Aslant Tract right; Cerebellum left; Cerebellum right; Corpus Callosum Major; Corpus Callosum Minor; Central Tegmental Tract left; Central Tegmental Tract right; Extreme Capsule left; Extreme Capsule right; Fronto-pontine tract left; Fronto-pontine tract right; Inferior Fronto-occipital Fasciculus left; Inferior Fronto-occipital Fasciculus right; Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus left; Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus right; Middle Cerebellar Peduncle; Middle Longitudinal Fasciculus left; Middle Longitudinal Fasciculus right; Medial Longitudinal fasciculus left; Medial Longitudinal fasciculus right; Medial Lemniscus left; Medial Lemniscus right; Occipito Pontine Tract left; Occipito Pontine Tract right; Optic Radiation left; Optic Radiation right; Parieto Pontine Tract left; Parieto Pontine Tract right; Superior longitudinal fasciculus left; Superior longitudinal fasciculus right; Spinothalamic Tract left; Spinothalamic Tract right; Temporopontine Tract left; Temporopontine Tract right; Uncinate Fasciculus left; Uncinate Fasciculus right; Vermis.

TractSeg: Arcuate fascicle left; Arcuate fascicle right; Anterior Thalamic Radiation left; Thalamic Radiation right; Commissure Anterior; Rostrum; Genu; Rostral body (Premotor); Anterior midbody (Primary Motor); Posterior midbody (Primary Somatosensory); Isthmus; Splenium; Corpus Callosum – all; Cingulum left; Cingulum right; Corticospinal tract left; Corticospinal tract right; Fronto-pontine tract left; Fronto-pontine tract right; Fornix left; Fornix right; Inferior cerebellar peduncle left; Inferior cerebellar peduncle right; Inferior occipito-frontal fascicle left; Inferior occipito-frontal fascicle right; Inferior longitudinal fascicle left; Inferior longitudinal fascicle right; Middle cerebellar peduncle; Middle longitudinal fascicle left; Middle longitudinal fascicle right; Optic radiation left; Optic radiation right; Parieto-occipital pontine left; Parieto-occipital pontine right; Superior cerebellar peduncle left; Superior cerebellar peduncle right; Superior longitudinal fascicle III left; Superior longitudinal fascicle III right; Superior longitudinal fascicle II left; Superior longitudinal fascicle II right; Superior longitudinal fascicle I left; Superior longitudinal fascicle I right;Striato-fronto-orbital left; Striato-fronto-orbital right; Striato-occipital left; Striato-occipital right; Striato-parietal left; Striato-parietal right; Striato-postcentral left; Striato-postcentral right; Striato-precentral left; Striato-precentral right; Striato-prefrontal left; Striato-prefrontal right; Striato-premotor left; Striato-premotor right; Superior Thalamic Radiation left; Superior Thalamic Radiation right; Thalamo-occipital left; Thalamo-occipital right; Thalamo-parietal left; Thalamo-parietal right; Thalamo-postcentral left; Thalamo-postcentral right; Thalamo-precentral left; Thalamo-precentral right; Thalamo-prefrontal left; Thalamo-prefrontal right; Thalamo-premotor left; Thalamo-premotor right; Uncinate fascicle left; Uncinate fascicle right.

Tracula: Corpus Callosum Forceps Major; Corpus Callosum Forceps Minor; Anterior Thalamic Radiation left; Cingulum - Angular Bundle left; Cingulum - Cingulate Gyrus left; Corticospinal Tract left; Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus left; Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus - Parietal left; Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus - Temporal left; Uncinate Fasciculus left; Anterior Thalamic Radiation right; Cingulum - Angular Bundle right; Cingulum - Cingulate Gyrus right; Corticospinal Tract right; Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus right; Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus - Parietal right; Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus - Temporal right; Uncinate Fasciculus right.

Xtract: Anterior Commissure; Arcuate Fascile left; Arcuate Fascile right; Acoustic Radiation left; Acoustic Radiation right; Anterior Thalamic Radiation left; Anterior Thalamic Radiation right; Cingulum Bundle Dorsal left; Cingulum Bundle Dorsal right; Cingulum Bundle Parahippocampal left; Cingulum Bundle Parahippocampal right; Cingulum Bundle Temporal left; Cingulum Bundle Temporal right; Corticospinal Tract left; Corticospinal Tract right; Frontal Aslant left; Frontal Aslant right; Forceps Major; Forceps Minor; Fornix left; Fornix right; Inferior Fronto-occipital Fasciculus left; Inferior Fronto-occipital Fasciculus right; Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus left; Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus right; Middle Cerebellar Peduncle; Medio-Dorsal Longitudinal Fasciculus left; Medio-Dorsal Longitudinal Fasciculus right; Optic Radiation left; Optic Radiation right; Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus 1 left; Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus 1 right; Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus 2 left; Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus 2 right; Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus 3 left; Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus 3 right; Superior Thalamic Radiation left; Superior Thalamic Radiation right; Uncinate Fasciculus left; Uncinate Fasciculus right; Vertical Occipital Fasciculus left; Vertical Occipital Fasciculus right

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Hansen, C.B., Yang, Q., Lyu, I. et al. Pandora: 4-D White Matter Bundle Population-Based Atlases Derived from Diffusion MRI Fiber Tractography. Neuroinform 19, 447–460 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12021-020-09497-1

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Keywords

  • White matter
  • Atlas
  • Tractography