Serum antithyroglobulin antibodies (sTgAb) affect the reliability of Tg measurement in patients with thyroid cancer. We compared the outcome of patients with detectable and undetectable sTgAb, stratified according to the initial risk of recurrence (RR); also the response to treatment in patients with detectable sTgAb treated with total thyroidectomy (TT) with and without radioiodine remnant ablation (RA) and the sTgAb trend in the long-term follow-up according to the initial response.
We included 432 patients submitted to TT, with or without RA; 106 patients had detectable sTgAb levels. Median follow-up was 53 months.
There were no statistically significant differences considering presentation between negative or positive sTgAb subjects. The frequency of structural incomplete response (SIR) in low, intermediate, and high RR was similar. Undetectable sTgAb in patients was achieved in a median of 16 months in ablated patients compared with 11 months in those without RA (p = 0.0232). Patients without RA had a higher rate of undetectable sTgAb during the first 12 months. A SIR was observed in 3% of patients with declining sTgAb, in 19% of those with stable levels, and in 43% with increasing sTgAb (p = 0.004). The status of no evidence of disease was achieved more frequently in patients with initial sTgAb levels < 200 mUI/l, independently of the initial RR.
There was no impact of sTgAb on the initial clinical presentation and the response to therapy in low-risk patients treated with or without RA. sTgAb trend is more useful than an absolute value to predict a SIR.
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Bueno, F., Falcone, M.G.G., Peñaloza, M.A. et al. Dynamics of serum antithyroglobulin antibodies in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Endocrine 67, 387–396 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12020-019-02112-7