Is plasma 25(OH) D related to adipokines, inflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance in both a healthy and morbidly obese population?
- 482 Downloads
To analyse in a cohort of healthy subjects and in a group of morbidly obese patients, we studied the association amongst 25(OH) D and plasma concentrations of adipocytokines, inflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance. We also aimed to determine whether vitamin D-deficient patients showed a greater inflammatory profile. In the observational study that the authors conducted, plasma concentrations of 25(OH) D, leptin, resistin, adiponectin and interleukine-18 were determined in 134 healthy men and 127 women. In the population consisting of 44 patients with morbid obesity, plasma concentrations of 25(OH) D, leptin, resistin, adiponectin, interleukine-18, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 and C-reactive protein were analysed. In the healthy population, plasma 25(OH) D showed a negative correlation with body mass index, body fat, waist, hip circumference and with leptin. However, no significant associations were found amongst 25(OH) D and plasma concentrations of resistin, adiponectin or interleukine-18. Patients with vitamin D deficiency showed higher body mass index, fat mass percentage and higher leptin concentrations compared with subjects with normal 25(OH) D concentrations. In the morbidly obese subjects, 25(OH) D did not correlate with leptin, resistin, adiponectin, interleukine-18, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 or with C-reactive protein. In patients with morbid obesity, no differences were found in adipokines and inflammatory cytokines concentrations regarding 25(OH) D status. No associations were found either between 25(OH) D and plasma glucose and insulin resistance or with lipid profile. Plasma 25(OH) D concentrations are associated with adiposity markers but not with adipocytokines implicated in inflammation. This lack of association does not support a major role of 25(OH) D in the pro-inflammatory environment observed in morbidly obese subjects. In addition, subjects with vitamin D deficiency are not characterized by a greater inflammatory state.
KeywordsAdiponectin Adipocytokines Inflammatory cytokines Insulin resistance Morbidly obesity Vitamin D
Declaration of interest
There is no conflict of interest that could be perceived as prejudicing the impartiality of the research reported.
This study was supported by the CIBER of Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Diseases (CIBERDEM), a project of Instituto de Salud Carlos III, ISCIII.
- 14.L. Overbergh, B. Decallonne, D. Valckx, A. Verstuf, J. Depovere, J. Laureys, O. Rutgeerts, R. Saint-Arnaud, R. Bouillon, C. Mathieu, Identification and immune regulation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1-alpha-hydroxylase in murine macrophages. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 120, 139–146 (2000)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 18.J.S. Yudkin, C.D. Stehouwer, J.J. Emeis, S.W. Coppack, C-reactive protein in healthy subjects: associations with obesity, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction: a potential role for cytokines originating from adipose tissue. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 19, 972–978 (1999)PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 23.U.G. Kyle, I. Bosaeus, A.D. De Lorenzo, P. Deurenberg, M. Elia, J.M. Gómez, B. Lilienthal Heitmann, L. Kent-Smith, J.C. Melchior, M. Pirlich, H. Scharfetter, M.W.J. Schols A, C. Pichard, Bioelectrical impedance analysis, Part II: utilization in clinical practice. Clin. Nutr. 23, 1430–1453 (2004)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 24.World Health Organization, Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report on a WHO consultation on obesity. WHO/NUT/NCD/98.1. WHO, Geneva, 3–5 June 1997Google Scholar
- 32.M.T. Cantorna, B.D. Mahon, D-hormone and the immune system. J. Rheumatol. 76, 11–20 (2005)Google Scholar
- 40.M. Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, B. Zahorska-Markiewicz, J. Janowska, The effect of weight loss on serum concentrations of nitric oxide, TNF-alpha and TNF-alpha receptors. Pol. J. Endocrinol. 57, 487–493 (2006)Google Scholar
- 43.N. Vilarrasa, J. Vendrell, R. Sanchez-Santos, M. Broch, A. Megia, C. Masdevall, N. Gomez, J. Soler, J. Pujol, C. Bettonica, H. Aanda, J.M. Gómez, Effect of weight loss induced by gastric bypass on proinflammatory interleukin-18, soluble tumour necrosis factor-α receptors, c-reactive protein and adiponectin in morbidly obese patients. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) 67, 679–686 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 44.N. Vilarrasa, J.M. Gómez, C. Masdevall, J. Pujol, J. Soler, I. Elio, L. Gallart, J. Vendrell, Study of the relationship between adiponectin, interleukin-18, ghrelin and bone mineral density in morbidly obese women after gastric by-pass. Endocrinol. Nutr. 56, 355–360 (2009)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 49.E.D. Michos, E.A. Streeten, K.A. Ryan, E. Rampersaud, P.A. Peyser, L.F. Bielak, A.R. Shuldiner, B.D. Mitchell, W. Post, Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are not associated with subclinical vascular disease or C-reactive protein in the old order Amish. Calcif. Tissue Int. 84, 423–424 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar