Austin spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that can include impairments in communication skills and social interaction as well as behavioral challenges. Recent research has evaluated bone health and bone mineral density (BMD) in cohorts of pediatric, adolescent, and young adult participants. Consistent findings across publications indicate that individuals with ASD have decreased BMD when compared to non-ASD age-matched peers. Factors raised in the literature for consideration of impact on BMD status include dietary intake, feeding behavior, nutrient status, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and diagnoses, physical activity, and prescription medication usage. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of published research evaluating BMD in those with ASD, analyze potential issues of correlation with lowered BMD in this population, offer perspective for future research consideration, and propose evaluation and intervention strategies to address and potentially ameliorate both the short-term and long-term impact of decreased BMD in children and adolescents.
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autism spectrum disorder
bone mineral content
dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry
gluten free casein free
inflammatory bowel disease
primary care practitioner
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Barnhill, K.M., Devlin, M. & Hewitson, L. Bone Health and BMD Research in Pediatric and Adolescent Individuals with ASD: Current Data, Evaluation, and Next Steps. Clinic Rev Bone Miner Metab 17, 160–169 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12018-019-09268-w
- Bone mineral density
- Autism spectrum disorder