Testosterone and Male Osteoporosis
Male osteoporosis is not a rare public health issue. The prevalence of hypogonadism increases with aging, and the gradual onset of moderate hypogonadism is the most common cause of male osteoporosis. Decreased testosterone levels with aging can directly or indirectly increase the risk of male osteoporosis and fractures. However, testosterone deficiency is not a universal feature of elderly men, and the association of testosterone with osteoporosis is not as strong as that of estrogen with osteoporosis in females; the effect of testosterone on male osteoporosis and treatment of osteoporosis is still controversial. Although many data and results have been released, the mechanism by which testosterone affects bone formation and resorption is not fully understood yet. Therefore, this review aims to present current knowledge about testosterone and male osteoporosis.
KeywordsTestosterone Androgen Androgen receptor Osteoporosis
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Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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