The beneficial effects of the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate drugs have been clearly defined, especially for the treatment for osteoporosis, metastatic or primary bone malignancies, and some rare bone diseases. The adverse effects of these drugs on oral hard and soft tissues are significant and recognized with increasing frequency. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features of osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ) are well characterized; the effects of bisphosphonates on oral soft tissues are an emerging area of study. This review will provide an overview of ONJ from a clinical perspective and also discuss recent findings related to bisphosphonate-induced soft tissue pathology.
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Kramer, J.M., Fantasia, J.E. Bisphosphonates and Osteonecrosis of the Jaws: A Review of Clinical Features and the Drug Effect on Oral Soft Tissues. Clinic Rev Bone Miner Metab 9, 38–46 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12018-011-9083-9