Advertisement

Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology

, Volume 56, Issue 1, pp 19–31 | Cite as

Food-Related Contact Dermatitis, Contact Urticaria, and Atopy Patch Test with Food

  • Alexandra Walter
  • Marlene Seegräber
  • Andreas WollenbergEmail author
Article

Abstract

A wide variety of foods may cause or aggravate skin diseases such as contact dermatitis, contact urticaria, or atopic dermatitis (AD), both in occupational and private settings. The mechanism of action underlying allergic disease to food, food additives, and spices may be immunologic and non-immunologic. The classification and understanding of these reactions is a complex field, and knowledge of the possible reaction patterns and appropriate diagnostic test methods is essential. In addition, certain foods may cause worsening of atopic dermatitis lesions in children. The atopy patch test (APT) is a well-established, clinically useful tool for assessing delayed type reactions to protein allergens in patients and may be useful to detect protein allergens relevant for certain skin diseases. The APT may even detect sensitization against allergens in intrinsic atopic dermatitis patients, who show negative skin prick test and negative in vitro IgE test results against these allergens. Native foods, SPT solutions on filter paper, and purified allergens in petrolatum have been used for APT. The European Task Force on Atopic Dermatitis (ETFAD) has worked on standardizing this test in the context of AD patients, who are allergic to aeroallergens and food. This recommended, standardized technique involves test application at the upper back of children and adults; use of large, 12-mm Finn chambers; avoidance of any pre-treatment such as tape stripping or delipidation; standardized amounts of purified allergens in petrolatum; and use of the standardized ETFAD reading key. The APT may not be the best working or best standardized of all possible skin tests, but it is the best test that we currently have available in this niche.

Keywords

Food allergy Contact dermatitis Atopy patch test Contact urticaria Reading key 

Abbreviations

ICD

Irritant contact dermatitis

ACD

Allergic contact dermatitis

AD

Atopic dermatitis

APT

Atopy patch test

CU

Contact urticaria

DBPCFC

Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge

ETFAD

European Task Force on Atopic Dermatitis

SCD

Systemic contact dermatitis

SPT

Skin prick test

PACD

Photoallergic contact dermatitis

PCD

Protein contact dermatitis

PTCD

Phototoxic contact dermatitis

PT

Patch test

References

  1. 1.
    Adinoff AD, Tellez P, Clark RA (1988) Atopic dermatitis and aeroallergen contact sensitivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 81:736–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Amado A, Jacob SE (2007) Contact dermatitis caused by foods. Actas dermo-sifiliograficas 98:452–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Amin S, Tanglertsampan C, Maibach HI (1997) Contact urticaria syndrome: 1997. Am J Contact Dermatitis : Off J Am Contact Dermatitis Soc 8:15–19Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Antico A, Soana R (1999) Chronic allergic-like dermatopathies in nickel-sensitive patients. Results of dietary restrictions and challenge with nickel salts. Allergy Asthma Proceedings 20:235–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Asero R, Fernandez-Rivas M, Knulst AC, Bruijnzeel-Koomen CAFM (2009) Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge in adults in everyday clinical practice: a reappraisal of their limitations and real indications. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 9:379–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bahna SL (2004) Adverse food reactions by skin contact. Allergy 59(Suppl 78):66–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bahna SL (1994) Exquisite food allergy without eating. Allergy 49:129–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barbaud A, Poreaux C, Penven E, Waton J (2015) Occupational protein contact dermatitis. Eur J Dermatol: EJD 25:527–534Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Basomba A, Sastre A, Pelaez A et al (1985) Standardization of the prick test. A comparative study of three methods. Allergy 40:395–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bindslev-Jensen C, Ballmer-Weber BK, Bengtsson U, Blanco C, Ebner C, Hourihane J, Knulst AC, Moneret-Vautrin DA, Nekam K, Niggemann B, Osterballe M, Ortolani C, Ring J, Schnopp C, Werfel T, European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (2004) Standardization of food challenges in patients with immediate reactions to foods—position paper from the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology. Allergy 59:690–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Boguniewicz M, Leung DY (2011) Atopic dermatitis: a disease of altered skin barrier and immune dysregulation. Immunol Rev 242:233–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brancaccio RR, Alvarez MS (2004) Contact allergy to food. Dermatol Ther 17:302–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Breneman JC, Sweeney M, Robert A (1989) Patch tests demonstrating immune (antibody and cell-mediated) reactions to foods. Annals of allergy 62:461–469Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Breuer K, Heratizadeh A, Wulf A, Baumann U, Constien A, Tetau D, Kapp A, Werfel T (2004) Late eczematous reactions to food in children with atopic dermatitis. Clin Exp Allergy: J British Soc Allergy Clin Immunol 34:817–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bruijnzeel-Koomen C (1998) The role of IgE in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Allergy 53:29–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Burks AW, Mallory SB, Williams LW, Shirrell MA (1988) Atopic dermatitis: clinical relevance of food hypersensitivity reactions. J Pediatr 113:447–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chan EF, Mowad C (1998) Contact dermatitis to foods and spices. Am J Contact Dermatitis : Off J Am Contact Dermatitis Soc 9:71–79Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Darsow U, Laifaoui J, Kerschenlohr K, Wollenberg A, Przybilla B, Wuthrich B, Borelli S, Giusti F, Seidenari S, Drzimalla K, Simon D, Disch R, Borelli S, Devillers ACA, Oranje AP, de Raeve L, Hachem JP, Dangoisse C, Blondeel A, Song M, Breuer K, Wulf A, Werfel T, Roul S, Taieb A, Bolhaar S, Bruijnzeel-Koomen C, Bronnimann M, Braathen LR, Didierlaurent A, Andre C, Ring J (2004) The prevalence of positive reactions in the atopy patch test with aeroallergens and food allergens in subjects with atopic eczema: a European multicenter study. Allergy 59:1318–1325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Darsow U, Ring J (2000) Airborne and dietary allergens in atopic eczema: a comprehensive review of diagnostic tests. Clin Exp Dermatol 25:544–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Darsow U, Vieluf D, Ring J (1995) Atopy patch test with different vehicles and allergen concentrations: an approach to standardization. J Allergy Clin Immunol 95:677–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Darsow U, Vieluf D, Ring J (1999) Evaluating the relevance of aeroallergen sensitization in atopic eczema with the atopy patch test: a randomized, double-blind multicenter study. Atopy patch test study group. J Am Acad Dermatol 40:187–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dominguez C, Ojeda I, Crespo JF et al (1996) Allergic reactions following skin contact with fish. Allergy Asthma Proc 17:83–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dooms-Goossens A, Dubelloy R, Degreef H (1990) Contact and systemic contact-type dermatitis to spices. Dermatol Clin 8:89–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gaul LE (1964) Contact dermatitis from synthetic oil of mustard. Arch Dermatol 90:158–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gimenez-Arnau A, Maurer M, De La Cuadra J et al (2010) Immediate contact skin reactions, an update of contact urticaria, contact urticaria syndrome and protein contact dermatitis—“a never ending story”. Eur J Dermatol: EJD 20:552–562Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hallett R, Haapanen LA, Teuber SS (2002) Food allergies and kissing. N Engl J Med 346:1833–1834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hanifin J, Rajka G (1980) Diagnostic features of atopic. Dermatitis:44–47Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hannuksela M (2006) Protein contact dermatitis. In: Frosch P, Menné T, Lepoittevin J-P (eds) Contact dermatitis. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 345–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hannuksela M (2006) Skin tests for immediate hypersensitivity. In: Frosch P, Menné T, Lepoittevin J-P (eds) Contact dermatitis. Springer, pp 431–434Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hannuksela M, Forstrom L (1978) Reactions to peroral propylene glycol. Contact Dermatitis 4:41–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hernandez-Bel P, De La Cuadra J, Garcia R et al (2011) Protein contact dermatitis: review of 27 cases. Actas dermo-sifiliograficas 102:336–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hjorth N, Roed-Petersen J (1976) Occupational protein contact dermatitis in food handlers. Contact Dermatitis 2:28–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Iliev D, Wuthrich B (1998) Occupational protein contact dermatitis with type I allergy to different kinds of meat and vegetables. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 71:289–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Imayama S, Hashizume T, Miyahara H, Tanahashi T, Takeishi M, Kubota Y, Koga T, Hori Y, Fukuda H (1992) Combination of patch test and IgE for dust mite antigens differentiates 130 patients with atopic dermatitis into four groups. J Am Acad Dermatol 27:531–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Isolauri E, Turjanmaa K (1996) Combined skin prick and patch testing enhances identification of food allergy in infants with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 97:9–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Janssens V, Morren M, Dooms-Goossens A et al (1995) Protein contact dermatitis: myth or reality? Br J Dermatol 132:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Johansson C, Sandstrom MH, Bartosik J, Sarnhult T, Christiansen J, Zargari A, Back O, Wahlgren CF, Faergemann J, Scheynius A, Tengvall Linder M (2003) Atopy patch test reactions to Malassezia allergens differentiate subgroups of atopic dermatitis patients. Br J Dermatol 148:479–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kalach N, Soulaines P, De Boissieu D et al (2005) A pilot study of the usefulness and safety of a ready-to-use atopy patch test (Diallertest) versus a comparator (Finn chamber) during cow’s milk allergy in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 116:1321–1326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kanerva L (2000) Occupational protein contact dermatitis and paronychia from natural rubber latex. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol: JEADV 14:504–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kekki OM, Turjanmaa K, Isolauri E (1997) Differences in skin-prick and patch-test reactivity are related to the heterogeneity of atopic eczema in infants. Allergy 52:755–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kerschenlohr K, Darsow U, Burgdorf WH et al (2004) Lessons from atopy patch testing in atopic dermatitis. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 4:285–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kerschenlohr K, Decard S, Darsow U, Ollert M, Wollenberg A (2003) Clinical and immunologic reactivity to aeroallergens in “intrinsic” atopic dermatitis patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol 111:195–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kerschenlohr K, Decard S, Przybilla B, Wollenberg A (2003) Atopy patch test reactions show a rapid influx of inflammatory dendritic epidermal cells in patients with extrinsic atopic dermatitis and patients with intrinsic atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 111:869–874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lachapelle JM (2009) Patch testing: historical aspects. Annales de dermatologie et de venereologie 136:575–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Langeland T, Braathen LB, Borch M (1989) Studies of atopic patch tests. Acta Derm Venereol Suppl 144:105–109Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Langeveld-Wildschut EG, Bruijnzeel PL, Mudde GC et al (2000) Clinical and immunologic variables in skin of patients with atopic eczema and either positive or negative atopy patch test reactions. J Allergy Clin Immunol 105:1008–1016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Leung DY, Bieber T (2003) Atopic dermatitis. Lancet (London, England) 361:151–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Majamaa H, Moisio P, Holm K et al (1999) Cow’s milk allergy: diagnostic accuracy of skin prick and patch tests and specific IgE. Allergy 54:346–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mitchell EB, Crow J, Chapman MD et al (1982) Basophils in allergen-induced patch test sites in atopic dermatitis. Lancet (London, England) 1:127–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mitchell JC, Jordan WP (1974) Allergic contact dermatitis from the radish, Raphanus sativus. Br J Dermatol 91:183–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Niggemann B (2001) The role of the atopy patch test (APT) in diagnosis of food allergy in infants and children with atopic dermatitis. Pediatr Allergy Immunol : Off Publ Eur Soc Pediatr Allergy Immunol 12(Suppl 14):37–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Niggemann B, Beyer K (2011) Standardisierung von oralen Provokationstests bei Verdacht auf NahrungsmittelallergieGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Niggemann B, Reibel S, Roehr CC, Felger D, Ziegert M, Sommerfeld C, Wahn U (2001) Predictors of positive food challenge outcome in non-IgE-mediated reactions to food in children with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 108:1053–1058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Niggemann B, Reibel S, Wahn U (2000) The atopy patch test (APT)—a useful tool for the diagnosis of food allergy in children with atopic dermatitis. Allergy 55:281–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Niggemann B, Sielaff B, Beyer K et al (1999) Outcome of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge tests in 107 children with atopic dermatitis. Clin Exp Allergy: J British Soc Allergy Clin Immunol 29:91–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Niggemann B, Ziegert M, Reibel S (2002) Importance of chamber size for the outcome of atopy patch testing in children with atopic dermatitis and food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 110:515–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Oranje AP, Van Gysel D, Mulder PG et al (1994) Food-induced contact urticaria syndrome (CUS) in atopic dermatitis: reproducibility of repeated and duplicate testing with a skin provocation test, the skin application food test (SAFT). Contact Dermatitis 31:314–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Perackis K, Celik-Bilgili S, Staden U, Mehl A, Niggemann B (2003) Influence of age on the outcome of the atopy patch test with food in children with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 112:625–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Pfutzner W, Thomas P, Niedermeier A et al (2003) Systemic contact dermatitis elicited by oral intake of Balsam of Peru. Acta Derm Venereol 83:294–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Platts-Mills TA, Mitchell EB, Rowntree S et al (1983) The role of dust mite allergens in atopic dermatitis. Clin Exp Dermatol 8:233–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Polunin I (1951) Pineapple dermatosis. Br J Dermatol 63:441–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rance F (2004) What is the optimal occlusion time for the atopy patch test in the diagnosis of food allergies in children with atopic dermatitis? Pediatr Allergy Immunol: Off Publ Eur Soc Pediatr Allergy Immunol 15:93–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Rasanen L, Lehto M, Reunala T (1992) Diagnostic value of skin and laboratory tests in cow’s milk allergy/intolerance. Clin Exp Allergy: J British Soc Allergy Clin Immunol 22:385–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Rasanen L, Lehto M, Turjanmaa K et al (1994) Allergy to ingested cereals in atopic children. Allergy 49:871–876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Reitamo S, Visa K, Kahonen K et al (1989) Patch test reactions to inhalant allergens in atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol Suppl 144:119–121Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Reitamo S, Visa K, Kahonen K et al (1986) Eczematous reactions in atopic patients caused by epicutaneous testing with inhalant allergens. Br J Dermatol 114:303–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ring J, Kunz B, Bieber T et al (1989) The atopy patch test with aeroallergens in atopic eczema (AE). In: Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. Mosby-year book INC 11830 WESTLINE industrial DR, ST louis, MO, vol 63146-3318, pp 195–195Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rodriguez-Serna M, Sanchez-Motilla JM, Ramon R, Aliaga A (1998) Allergic and systemic contact dermatitis from Matricaria chamomilla tea. Contact Dermatitis 39:192–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sager N, Feldmann A, Schilling G et al (1992) House dust mite-specific T cells in the skin of subjects with atopic dermatitis: frequency and lymphokine profile in the allergen patch test. J Allergy Clin Immunol 89:801–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Salam TN, Fowler JF Jr (2001) Balsam-related systemic contact dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 45:377–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Schatzle M, Agathos M, Breit R (1998) Allergic contact dermatitis from goldenrod (Herba solidaginis) after systemic administration. Contact Dermatitis 39:271–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Scheman A, Gupta S (2001) Photoallergic contact dermatitis from diallyl disulfide. Contact Dermatitis 45:179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Seidenari S, Giusti F, Bertoni L, Mantovani L (2003) Combined skin prick and patch testing enhances identification of peanut-allergic patients with atopic dermatitis. Allergy 58:495–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Seidenari S, Manzini BM, Danese P, Giannetti A (1992) Positive patch tests to whole mite culture and purified mite extracts in patients with atopic dermatitis, asthma, and rhinitis. Annals of allergy 69:201–206Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sinha SM, Pasricha JS, Sharma R, Kandhari KC (1977) Vegetables responsible for contact dermatitis of the hands. Arch Dermatol 113:776–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Stromberg L (2002) Diagnostic accuracy of the atopy patch test and the skin-prick test for the diagnosis of food allergy in young children with atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome. Acta Paediatrica (Oslo, Norway: 1992) 91:1044–1049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Tan BB, Weald D, Strickland I, Freidmann PS (1996) Double-blind controlled trial of effect of housedust-mite allergen avoidance on atopic dermatitis. Lancet (London, England) 347:15–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Turjanmaa K (2005) The role of atopy patch tests in the diagnosis of allergy in atopic dermatitis. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 5:425–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Turjanmaa K, Darsow U, Niggemann B, Rancé F, Vanto T, Werfel T (2006) EAACI/GA2LEN position paper: present status of the atopy patch test. Allergy 61:1377–1384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Veien NK (1997) Ingested food in systemic allergic contact dermatitis. Clin Dermatol 15:547–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Veien NK, Hattel T, Justesen O, Nørholm A (1983) Causes of eczema in the food industry. Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt Occupation and environment 31:84–86Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Veien NK, Hattel T, Laurberg G (1996) Can oral challenge with Balsam of Peru predict possible benefit from a low-balsam diet? Am J Contact Dermatitis : Off J Am Contact Dermatitis Soc 7:84–87Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Veien NK, Hattel T, Laurberg G (1993) Low nickel diet: an open, prospective trial. J Am Acad Dermatol 29:1002–1007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Vester L, Thyssen JP, Menne T et al (2012) Occupational food-related hand dermatoses seen over a 10-year period. Contact Dermatitis 66:264–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Von Krogh G, Maibach HI (1981) The contact urticaria syndrome—an updated review. J Am Acad Dermatol 5:328–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Weidinger S, Novak N (2016) Atopic dermatitis. Lancet (London, England) 387:1109–1122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Wistokat-Wulfing A, Schmidt P, Darsow U et al (1999) Atopy patch test reactions are associated with T lymphocyte-mediated allergen-specific immune responses in atopic dermatitis. Clin Exp Allergy: J British Soc Allergy Clin Immunol 29:513–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Wollenberg A, Bieber T (2000) Atopic dermatitis: from the genes to skin lesions. Allergy 55:205–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Wollenberg A, Kraft S, Hanau D, Bieber T (1996) Immunomorphological and ultrastructural characterization of Langerhans cells and a novel, inflammatory dendritic epidermal cell (IDEC) population in lesional skin of atopic eczema. J Investig Dermatol 106:446–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Wollenberg A, Oranje A, Deleuran M, Simon D, Szalai Z, Kunz B, Svensson A, Barbarot S, von Kobyletzki L, Taieb A, de Bruin-Weller M, Werfel T, Trzeciak M, Vestergard C, Ring J, Darsow U, the European Task Force on Atopic Dermatitis/EADV Eczema Task Force (2016) ETFAD/EADV Eczema task force 2015 position paper on diagnosis and treatment of atopic dermatitis in adult and paediatric patients. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol: JEADV 30:729–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Wollenberg A, Rawer HC, Schauber J (2011) Innate immunity in atopic dermatitis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 41:272–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Wollenberg A, Vogel S (2013) Patch testing for noncontact dermatitis: the atopy patch test for food and inhalants. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 13:539–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Wuthrich B (1998) Food-induced cutaneous adverse reactions. Allergy 53:131–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ylipieti S, Lahti A (1989) Effect of the vehicle on non-immunologic immediate contact reactions. Contact Dermatitis 21:105–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Zawodniak A, Kupczyk M, Gorski P, Kuna P (2003) Comparison of standard and modified SPT method. Allergy 58:257–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Darsow U, Laifaoui J, Kerschenlohr K, Wollenberg A, Przybilla B, Wuthrich B, Borelli S Jr, Giusti F, Seidenari S, Drzimalla K, Simon D, Disch R, Borelli S, Devillers AC, Oranje AP, De Raeve L, Hachem JP, Dangoisse C, Blondeel A, Song M, Breuer K, Wulf A, Werfel T, Roul S, Taieb A, Bolhaar S, Bruijnzeel-Koomen C, Bronnimann M, Braathen LR, Didierlaurent A, Andre C, Ring J (2004) The prevalence of positive reactions in the atopy patch test with aeroallergens and food allergens in subjects with atopic eczema: a European multicenter study. Allergy 59(12):1318–1325.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1398-9995.2004.00556.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Niggemann B, Reibel S, Wahn U (2000) The atopy patch test (APT)—a useful tool for the diagnosis of food allergy in children with atopic dermatitis. Allergy 55(3):281–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kalach N, Soulaines P, de Boissieu D, Dupont C (2005) A pilot study of the usefulness and safety of a ready-to-use atopy patch test (Diallertest) versus a comparator (Finn chamber) during cow’s milk allergy in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 116 (6):1321–1326.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2005.08.033
  99. 99.
    Langeveld-Wildschut EG, van Marion AM, Thepen T, Mudde GC, Bruijnzeel PL, Bruijnzeel-Koomen CA (1995) Evaluation of variables influencing the outcome of the atopy patch test. J Allergy Clin Immunol 96(1):66–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Fogg MI, Brown-Whitehorn TA, Pawlowski NA, Spergel JM (2006) Atopy patch test for the diagnosis of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. Pediatr Allergy Immunol: Off Publ Eur Soc Pediatr Allergy Immunol 17(5):351–355.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3038.2006.00418.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexandra Walter
    • 1
  • Marlene Seegräber
    • 1
    • 2
  • Andreas Wollenberg
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Dermatology and AllergologyLudwig Maximilian University, MunichMunichGermany
  2. 2.Städt. Klinikum Thalkirchner StrasseMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations