Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology

, Volume 54, Issue 2, pp 307–317 | Cite as

Myeloid Cells and Chronic Liver Disease: a Comprehensive Review

  • Min Lian
  • Carlo Selmi
  • M. Eric Gershwin
  • Xiong Ma


Myeloid cells play a major role in the sensitization to liver injury, particularly in chronic inflammatory liver diseases with a biliary or hepatocellular origin, and the interplay between myeloid cells and the liver may explain the increased incidence of hepatic osteodystrophy. The myeloid cell-liver axis involves several mature myeloid cells as well as immature or progenitor cells with the complexity of the liver immune microenvironment aggravating the mist of cell differentiation. The unique positioning of the liver at the junction of the peripheral and portal circulation systems underlines the interaction of myeloid cells and hepatic cells and leads to immune tolerance breakdown. We herein discuss the scenarios of different chronic liver diseases closely modulated by myeloid cells and illustrate the numerous potential targets, the understanding of which will ultimately steer the development of solid immunotherapeutic regimens. Ultimately, we are convinced that an adequate modulation of the liver microenvironment to modify the functional and quantitative characteristics of myeloid cells will be a successful approach to treating chronic liver diseases of different etiologies.


Myeloid cell Chronic inflammatory liver diseases Myeloid cell-liver axis Hepatic osteodystrophy 


Funding Information

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China grants (nos. 81325002, 81620108002, and 81771732 to XM).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval and Informed Consent

No ethics issues are raised relevant to this review article.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018
corrected publication [March/2018]

Authors and Affiliations

  • Min Lian
    • 1
  • Carlo Selmi
    • 2
    • 3
  • M. Eric Gershwin
    • 4
  • Xiong Ma
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Ministry of Health, State Key Laboratory for Oncogenes and Related Genes, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghai Institute of Digestive DiseaseShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Division of Rheumatology and Clinical ImmunologyHumanitas Research HospitalRozzanoItaly
  3. 3.BIOMETRA DepartmentUniversity of MilanMilanItaly
  4. 4.Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Allergy and Clinical ImmunologyUniversity of California at DavisDavisUSA

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