Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology

, Volume 46, Issue 1, pp 65–81 | Cite as

Marijuana: Respiratory Tract Effects

  • Kelly P. Owen
  • Mark E. Sutter
  • Timothy E. Albertson
Article

Abstract

Marijuana is the most commonly used drug of abuse in the USA. It is commonly abused through inhalation and therefore has effects on the lung that are similar to tobacco smoke, including increased cough, sputum production, hyperinflation, and upper lobe emphysematous changes. However, at this time, it does not appear that marijuana smoke contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Marijuana can have multiple physiologic effects such as tachycardia, peripheral vasodilatation, behavioral and emotional changes, and possible prolonged cognitive impairment. The carcinogenic effects of marijuana are unclear at this time. Studies are mixed on the ability of marijuana smoke to increase the risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer. Some studies show that marijuana is protective for development of malignancy. Marijuana smoke has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the immune system. Components of cannabis are under investigation as treatment for autoimmune diseases and malignancy. As marijuana becomes legalized in many states for medical and recreational use, other forms of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have been developed, such as food products and beverages. As most research on marijuana at this time has been on whole marijuana smoke, rather than THC, it is difficult to determine if the currently available data is applicable to these newer products.

Keywords

Marijuana Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Malignancy Chronic bronchitis Immune system 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kelly P. Owen
    • 1
  • Mark E. Sutter
    • 1
  • Timothy E. Albertson
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Emergency MedicineUniversity of California Davis Medical CenterSacramentoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of California Davis Medical CenterSacramentoUSA
  3. 3.Department of MedicineVeterans Administration Northern California Health Care SystemMatherUSA

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