A Concise Review on Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes for Personalized Regenerative Medicine

Abstract

The induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are derived from somatic cells by using reprogramming factors such as Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc (OSKM) or Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and Lin28 (OSNL). They resemble embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and have the ability to differentiate into cell lineage of all three germ-layer, including cardiomyocytes (CMs). The CMs can be generated from iPSCs by inducing embryoid bodies (EBs) formation and treatment with activin A, bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), and inhibitors of Wnt signaling. However, these iPSC-derived CMs are a heterogeneous population of cells and require purification and maturation to mimic the in vivo CMs. The matured CMs can be used for various therapeutic purposes in regenerative medicine by cardiomyoplasty or through the development of tissue-engineered cardiac patches. In recent years, significant advancements have been made in the isolation of iPSC and their differentiation, purification, and maturation into clinically usable CMs. Newer small molecules have also been identified to substitute the reprogramming factors for iPSC generation as well as for direct differentiation of somatic cells into CMs without an intermediary pluripotent state. This review provides a concise update on the generation of iPSC-derived CMs and their application in personalized cardiac regenerative medicine. It also discusses the current limitations and challenges in the application of iPSC-derived CMs.

Graphical abstract

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Acknowledgments

Support (Project ID: 1-5763895621) from the Technical Education Quality Improvement Program (TEQIP-III), implemented through the Ministry of Human Resource Development – National Project Implementation Unit (MHRD-NPIU) is acknowledged. The support of Erasmus Mundus (NAMASTE) for exchange mobility of Pallavi Pushp and Erasmus+ for exchange mobility of Mukesh Gupta to Institute Superior Tecnico (IST), Portugal is also acknowledged.

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Pushp, P., Nogueira, D.E.S., Rodrigues, C.A.V. et al. A Concise Review on Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes for Personalized Regenerative Medicine. Stem Cell Rev and Rep (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12015-020-10061-2

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Keywords

  • Cardiomyocytes
  • Cardiac tissue engineering
  • Direct reprogramming
  • Pluripotent stem cells
  • iPSC
  • Regenerative medicine