Identification of a Novel High Yielding Source of Multipotent Adult Human Neural Crest-Derived Stem Cells
Due to their extraordinarily broad differentiation potential and persistence during adulthood, adult neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) are highly promising candidates for clinical applications, particularly when facing the challenging treatment of neurodegenerative diseases or complex craniofacial injuries. Successful application of human NCSCs in regenerative medicine and pharmaceutical research mainly relies on the availability of sufficient amounts of tissue for cell isolation procedures. Facing this challenge, we here describe for the first time a novel population of NCSCs within the middle turbinate of the human nasal cavity. From a surgical point of view, high amounts of tissue are routinely and easily removed during nasal biopsies. Investigating the presence of putative stem cells in obtained middle turbinate tissue by immunohistochemistry, we observed Nestin+/p75NTR+/S100+/α smooth muscle actin (αSMA)− cells, which we successfully isolated and cultivated in vitro. Cultivated middle turbinate stem cells (MTSCs) kept their expression of neural crest and stemness markers Nestin, p75 NTR and S100 and showed the capability of sphere formation and clonal growth, indicating their stem cell character. Application of directed in vitro differentiation assays resulted in successful differentiation of MTSCs into osteogenic and neuronal cell types. Regarding the high amount of tissue obtained during surgery as well as their broad differentiation capability, MTSCs seem to be a highly promising novel neural crest stem cell population for applications in cell replacement therapy and pharmacological research.
KeywordsNCSCs Human Nasal cavity Middle turbinate Neural crest Adult stem cells
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflicts of Interest
We have no conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this article. Human nasal middle turbinates and adipose tissue were obtained via routine nasal surgery after informed written consent according to local and international guidelines (Bezirksregierung Detmold/Münster). Isolation and further experimental procedures were ethically approved by the ethics commission of the Ärztekammer Westfalen-Lippe and the medical faculty of the Westfälische Wilhems-Universität (Münster, Germany).
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