Stem Cell Reviews and Reports

, Volume 13, Issue 6, pp 741–756 | Cite as

Eminent Sources of Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Therapeutic Imminence

  • Dannie Macrin
  • Joel P. Joseph
  • Aruthra Arumugam Pillai
  • Arikketh DeviEmail author


In the recent times, stem cell biology has garnered the attention of the scientific fraternity and the general public alike due to the immense therapeutic potential that it holds in the field of regenerative medicine. A breakthrough in this direction came with the isolation of stem cells from human embryo and their differentiation into cell types of all three germ layers. However, the isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from adult tissues proved to be advantageous over embryonic stem cells due to the ethical and immunological naivety. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) isolated from the bone marrow were found to differentiate into multiple cell lineages with the help of appropriate differentiation factors. Furthermore, other sources of stem cells including adipose tissue, dental pulp, and breast milk have been identified. Newer sources of stem cells have been emerging recently and their clinical applications are also being studied. In this review, we examine the eminent sources of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs), their immunophenotypes, and therapeutic imminence.


Mesenchymal stem cells Therapeutic potential Cell lineages Differentiation factors Immunophenotype 



The authors acknowledge the assistance of Jismi Elsa Abraham in drawing the figure that depicts the eminent sources of stem cells and their differentiation potential.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dannie Macrin
    • 1
  • Joel P. Joseph
    • 1
  • Aruthra Arumugam Pillai
    • 1
  • Arikketh Devi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Genetic EngineeringSRM UniversityKattankulathurIndia

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