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Stem Cell Reviews and Reports

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 586–597 | Cite as

Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells in Liver Fibrosis: Recent Findings, Old/New Caveats and Future Perspectives

Article

Abstract

Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are progenitors which share plastic-adherence capacity and cell surface markers but have different properties according to their cell and tissue sources and to culture conditions applied. Many recent publications suggest that MSCs can differentiate into hepatic-like cells, which can be a consequence of either a positive selection of rare in vivo pluripotent cells or of the original plasticity of some cells contributing to MSC cultures. A possible role of MSCs in hereditary transmission of obesity and/or diabetes as well as properties of MSCs regarding immunomodulation, cell fusion and exosome release capacities are discussed according to recent literature. Limitations in methods used to track MSCs in vivo especially in the context of liver cirrhosis are addressed as well as strategies explored to enhance their migratory, survival and proliferation properties, which are known to be relevant for their future clinical use. Current knowledge regarding mechanisms involved in liver cirrhosis amelioration mediated by naïve and genetically modified MSCs as well as the effects of applying preconditioning and combined strategies to improve their therapeutic effects are evaluated. Finally, first reports of GMP guidelines and biosafety issues in MSCs applications are discussed.

Keywords

Cirrhosis Mesenchymal stem cells Neural crest Hepatocyte-like cells IGF-I Biosafety Cell source Biodistribution Mechanisms 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are supported in part by grants from the Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (ANPCyT) (PICT PRH 2007 N° 51; PICT 2008 00123; PICTO 2008 00122). EJF and JBA are also supported by grants from the Universidad Austral.

Disclosures

The authors indicate no potential conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Gene Therapy Laboratory, Liver Unit, School of MedicineAustral UniversityDerqui-PilarArgentina
  2. 2.CONICET (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas)Buenos AiresArgentina

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