Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics

, Volume 75, Issue 2, pp 151–157 | Cite as

High-Frequency Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Nitroxide-Functionalized Nanodiamonds in Aqueous Solution

  • R. D. Akiel
  • V. Stepanov
  • S. Takahashi
Original Paper


Nanodiamond (ND) is an attractive class of nanomaterial for fluorescent labeling, magnetic sensing of biological molecules, and targeted drug delivery. Many of those applications require tethering of target biological molecules on the ND surface. Even though many approaches have been developed to attach macromolecules to the ND surface, it remains challenging to characterize dynamics of tethered molecule. Here, we show high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (HF EPR) spectroscopy of nitroxide-functionalized NDs. Nitroxide radical is a commonly used spin label to investigate dynamics of biological molecules. In the investigation, we developed a sample holder to overcome water absorption of HF microwave. Then, we demonstrated HF EPR spectroscopy of nitroxide-functionalized NDs in aqueous solution and showed clear spectral distinction of ND and nitroxide EPR signals. Moreover, through EPR spectral analysis, we investigate dynamics of nitroxide radicals on the ND surface. The demonstration sheds light on the use of HF EPR spectroscopy to investigate biological molecule-functionalized nanoparticles.


Electron paramagnetic resonance High frequency Aqueous sample Nanodiamond Nitroxide Click chemistry 



This work was supported by the Searle Scholars Program, the USC Anton B. Burg Foundation and the National Science Foundation (DMR-1508661) (S.T.).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of Physics and AstronomyUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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