Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics

, Volume 73, Issue 1, pp 93–100 | Cite as

Effect of Low-Intensity Microwave Radiation on Monoamine Neurotransmitters and Their Key Regulating Enzymes in Rat Brain

  • Kanu Megha
  • Pravin S. Deshmukh
  • Alok K. Ravi
  • Ashok K. Tripathi
  • Mahesh P. Abegaonkar
  • Basu D. BanerjeeEmail author
Original Paper


The increasing use of wireless communication devices has raised major concerns towards deleterious effects of microwave radiation on human health. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the effect of low-intensity microwave radiation on levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and gene expression of their key regulating enzymes in brain of Fischer rats. Animals were exposed to 900 MHz and 1800 MHz microwave radiation for 30 days (2 h/day, 5 days/week) with respective specific absorption rates as 5.953 × 10−4 and 5.835 × 10−4 W/kg. The levels of monoamine neurotransmitters viz. dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and serotonin (5-HT) were detected using LC–MS/MS in hippocampus of all experimental animals. In addition, mRNA expression of key regulating enzymes for these neurotransmitters viz. tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) (for DA, NE and E) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH1 and TPH2) (for serotonin) was also estimated. Results showed significant reduction in levels of DA, NE, E and 5-HT in hippocampus of microwave-exposed animals in comparison with sham-exposed (control) animals. In addition, significant downregulation in mRNA expression of TH, TPH1 and TPH2 was also observed in microwave-exposed animals (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the results indicate that low-intensity microwave radiation may cause learning and memory disturbances by altering levels of brain monoamine neurotransmitters at mRNA and protein levels.


Dopamine Epinephrine Microwave Norepinephrine Serotonin Tryptophan hydroxylase Tyrosine hydroxylase 



Authors would like to express their gratitude to Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), New Delhi, India for providing the major grant to support the microwave exposure facility. One of the authors, Kanu Megha, Senior Research Fellow is grateful to Department of Science and Technology (DST), Govt. of India for providing INSPIRE Fellowship.

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kanu Megha
    • 1
  • Pravin S. Deshmukh
    • 1
  • Alok K. Ravi
    • 2
  • Ashok K. Tripathi
    • 1
  • Mahesh P. Abegaonkar
    • 3
  • Basu D. Banerjee
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Environmental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of BiochemistryUniversity College of Medical Sciences & G.T.B. Hospital (University of Delhi)New DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Dr. R. P. Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, Department of Ocular BiochemistryAll India Institute of Medical SciencesNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Centre for Applied Research in Electronics (CARE)Indian Institute of TechnologyNew DelhiIndia

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