Cell phone radiation exposure and its biological interaction is the present concern of debate. Present study aimed to investigate the effect of 3G cell phone exposure with computer controlled 2-D stepper motor on 45-day-old male Wistar rat brain. Animals were exposed for 2 h a day for 60 days by using mobile phone with angular movement up to zero to 30°. The variation of the motor is restricted to 90° with respect to the horizontal plane, moving at a pre-determined rate of 2° per minute. Immediately after 60 days of exposure, animals were scarified and numbers of parameters (DNA double-strand break, micronuclei, caspase 3, apoptosis, DNA fragmentation, expression of stress-responsive genes) were performed. Result shows that microwave radiation emitted from 3G mobile phone significantly induced DNA strand breaks in brain. Meanwhile a significant increase in micronuclei, caspase 3 and apoptosis were also observed in exposed group (P < 0.05). Western blotting result shows that 3G mobile phone exposure causes a transient increase in phosphorylation of hsp27, hsp70, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), which leads to mitochondrial dysfunction-mediated cytochrome c release and subsequent activation of caspases, involved in the process of radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Study shows that the oxidative stress is the main factor which activates a variety of cellular signal transduction pathways, among them the hsp27/p38MAPK is the pathway of principle stress response. Results conclude that 3G mobile phone radiations affect the brain function and cause several neurological disorders.
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Authors are thankful to the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research [CSIR Project Ref. No. 37(1536)/12/EMR-II], New Delhi, for the financial assistance. Authors are also thankful to the reviewers of this paper for their important suggestions and corrections throughout the manuscript.
Kavindra Kumar Kesari and Ramovatar Meena have contributed equally to this study.
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Kesari, K.K., Meena, R., Nirala, J. et al. Effect of 3G Cell Phone Exposure with Computer Controlled 2-D Stepper Motor on Non-thermal Activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK Stress Pathway in Rat Brain. Cell Biochem Biophys 68, 347–358 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12013-013-9715-4
- 3G mobile phone
- Heat shock proteins
- Cell signaling pathway
- DNA strand break