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Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics

, Volume 48, Issue 2–3, pp 159–163 | Cite as

Roles of cytokines in the pathogenesis and therapy of type 1 diabetes

  • Alex RabinovitchEmail author
  • Wilma L. Suarez-Pinzon
Original Paper

Abstract

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans by autoreactive T helper 1 (Th1) cells characterized by their cytokine secretory products, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon γ (IFNγ). Th1-type cytokines (IL-2 and IFNγ) correlate with T1D, whereas Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10), Th3 (transforming growth factor beta [TGFβ]), and T regulatory cell-type cytokines (IL-10 and TGFβ) correlate with protection from T1D. Paradoxically, however, administrations of Th1-type cytokines (IL-2 and IFNγ) and immunotherapies that induce Th1-type cytokine responses actually prevent T1D, at least in animal models. Therefore, immunotherapies that inhibit IL-2 production/action will block Th1 cell/cytokine-driven effector mechanisms of pancreatic islet β-cell destruction; however, anti-IL-2 therapy will not allow immune tolerance to be established. In contrast, immunotherapies that increase IL-2 production/action may correct an immunodeficiency in IL-2 production that appears to underlie the autoimmunity of T1D, thereby restoring immune tolerance to islet β-cells and prevention of T1D.

Keywords

Type 1 diabetes Cytokines Autoimmunity Immune tolerance Immunotherapy 

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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MedicineUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

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