Cardiovascular Toxicology

, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 208–214 | Cite as

Echocardiographic Evaluation of the Acute Cardiovascular Effects of an Endothelin-Like Peptide Extracted from the Venom of Atractaspis irregularis

  • Yazine Mahjoub
  • Stéphanie Malaquin
  • Osama Abou Arab
  • Gilles Mourier
  • Emmanuel Lorne
  • Alexis Salomon
  • Saïd Kamel
  • Hervé Dupont
  • Frédéric Ducancel


Sarafotoxin-i3 from Atractaspis irregularis is a long sarafotoxin with an extended C terminus extension. Sarafotoxin-b from Atractaspis engaddensis is shorter by four amino acids. These peptides belong to the endothelin-like peptide family with a high sequence homology and similar three-dimensional structure. They act on endothelin receptors situated on the membrane of endothelial and smooth muscle cells. However, SRTX-i 3, despite a high toxicity, has a very low affinity for endothelin receptors compared to SRTX-b. The present work was carried out in order to compare the precise in vivo cardiovascular effect of SRTX-b and SRTX-i3. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Doppler echocardiography was performed to measure left and right ventricular functions. The rats were divided into three groups that received intravenous injections of: saline, SRTX-b or SRTX-i3. All measurements were taken at baseline, at 1 min and at 6 min after injection. Both toxins impaired cardiac output. SRTX-b impaired left ventricular function, while SRTX-i3 increased airway pressures and led to acute right ventricular dilatation associated with a decreased tricuspid annulus peak systolic velocity. SRTX-b and SRTX-i3 appear to exert toxic effects via different mechanisms, SRTX-b impairs left ventricular function, while SRTX-i3 increases airway pressures and impairs right ventricular function.


Sarafotoxins Endothelins Cardiovascular Echocardiography Right ventricle 





Sarafotoxin-b extracted from the venom of Atractaspis engaddensis


Sarafotoxin-i3 extracted from the venom of Atractaspis irregularis


Endothelin-receptor subtype A


Endothelin-receptor subtype B


Left ventricle


Right ventricle


Left ventricular fractional area


Left ventricular end-diastolic area


Right ventricular end-diastolic area


Cardiac output


Stroke volume


Tricuspid annulus peak systolic velocity



We thank Prof. Michel Slama (Medical intensive care unit, CHU Amiens) for his helpful advices and Dr. Denis Servent (SIMOPRO-CEA-Saclay) for the participation of his research group.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest regarding this work.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yazine Mahjoub
    • 1
    • 2
  • Stéphanie Malaquin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Osama Abou Arab
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gilles Mourier
    • 4
  • Emmanuel Lorne
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alexis Salomon
    • 1
    • 2
  • Saïd Kamel
    • 2
  • Hervé Dupont
    • 1
    • 2
  • Frédéric Ducancel
    • 3
  1. 1.Unité de réanimation chirurgicale, Pôle d’Anesthésie Réanimation et médecine d’urgenceCHU Amiens NordAmiens cedexFrance
  2. 2.Unité INSERM U1088AmiensFrance
  3. 3.CEA, iMETI, Service d’Immuno Virologie (SIV)CEA Fontenay-aux-RosesFontenay-aux-RosesFrance
  4. 4.CEA, iBiTec-S, Service d’Ingénierie Moléculaire des Protéines (SIMOPRO)CEA SaclayGif sur YvetteFrance

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