Cardioprotective Effect of Mumie (Shilajit) on Experimentally Induced Myocardial Injury
- 327 Downloads
This study assessed the effects of mumie (shilajit) pre-treatment, a traditional drug which is well known in the ancient medicine of both east and west, on cardiac performance of rats subjected to myocardial injury. Animals were divided into control, M250, and M500 (received mumie at dosages of 250 and 500 mg/kg/day, orally for 7 days, respectively) main groups each consisting of two subgroups—with and without heart injury. On the 6th and 7th days, isoproterenol (ISO) (85 mg/kg i.p.) was injected (s.c.) to half of the animal subgroups to induce myocardial damage. On the 8th day, after hemodynamic parameter recordings, hearts were removed for further evaluation. Mumie pre-treatment had no significant effects on hemodynamic and cardiac indices of normal animals. When the cardiac injury was induced, mumie maintained the ±dp/dt maximum, attenuated the serum cardiac troponin I, and reduced the severity of cardiac lesions. Despite the mild positive effects of mumie on total antioxidant capacity and lipid proxidation index, no significant difference was observed among animal groups. The findings suggest the prominent cardioprotective effect of mumie against destructive effects of ISO. It seems that other mechanisms than reinforcements of antioxidant system are involved in this beneficial effect.
KeywordsMumie (shilajit) Myocardial injury ±dp/dt maximum Cardiac troponin I Total antioxidant capacity Lipid proxidation index
The authors are thankful to the Vice Chancellor of Research, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, for financial support. We also express our gratitude to Ms Nadia Ghazanfari-Moghaddam for her critical proofreading of the manuscript.
- 1.Taylor, F., Huffman, M. D., Macedo, A. F., Moore, T. H. M., Burke, M., et al. (2013). Statins for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 1. Art. No: CD004816. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004816.pub5.
- 2.WHO. (2008). Cardiovascular disease. The World Health report. www.who.int/cardiovasculardiseases/en/. Accessed June 25, 2013.
- 4.Lloyd-Jones, D., Adams, R. J., Brown, T. M., Carnethon, M., Dai, S., De Simone, G., et al. (2010). On behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update: A report from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 121, e46–e215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.Zhang, X. (2000).World Health Organization (WHO). General guidelines for methodologies on research and evaluation of traditional medicine. World Health Organization. http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=%22+General+guidelines+for+methodologies+on+research+and+evaluation+of+traditional+medicine.+%22&btnG=&hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5. Accessed June 25, 2013.
- 6.Kamboj, V. P. (2000). Herbal medicine. Current Science, 78, 35–39.Google Scholar
- 10.Srivastava, R. S., Kumar, Y., Singh, S. K., & Ghosal, S. (1988). Shilajit, its source and active principles. In Proceedings of the 16th IUPAC (Chemistry of natural products). Kyoto Japan, pp. 524.Google Scholar
- 11.Surapaneni, D. K., Adapa, S. R., Preeti, K., Teja, G. R., Veeraragavan, M., & Krishnamurthy, S. (2012). Shilajit attenuates behavioral symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome by modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and mitochondrial bioenergetics in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 143, 91–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Saqib, M., Kausar, S., & Akhtar, S. (2012). Effect of Shilajit on lipid profile of hyperlipidemic albino rats and comparison with simvastatin. http://pjmhsonline.com/AprJune2012. Accessed June 12, 2013.
- 14.Trivedi, N. A., Mazumdar, B., Bhatt, J. D., & Hemavathi, K. G. (2004). Effect of shilajit on blood glucose and lipid profile in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Indian Journal Pharmacology, 36, 373–376.Google Scholar
- 18.Vivek, B., Wilson, E., Nithya Devi, S. V., Velmurugan, C., & Kannan, M. (2011). Cardioprotective activity of shilajit in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats: A biochemical and histopathological evaluation. International Journal Research Photochemistry Pharmacology, 1(1), 28–32.Google Scholar
- 21.Joukar, S., Ghasemipour-Afshar, E., Sheibani, M., Naghsh, N., & Bashiri, A. (2013). Protective effects of saffron (Crocus sativus) against lethal ventricular arrhythmias induced by heart reperfusion in rat: A potential anti-arrhythmic agent. Pharmaceutical Biology, 51(7), 836–843.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 22.Joukar, S., Najafipour, H., Mirzaeipour, F., Nasri, H., Ahmadi, M. Y. H., & Badinloo, M. (2013). Modulatory effect of semelil (angipars™) on isoproterenol induced cardiac injury. Experimental and Clinical Sciences Journal, 12, 122–129.Google Scholar
- 25.Joukar, S., Shahouzehi, B., Najafipour, H., Gholamhoseinian, A., & Joukar, F. (2012). Ameliorative effect of black tea on nicotine induced cardiovascular pathogenesis in rat. Experimental and Clinical Sciences Journal, 11, 309–317.Google Scholar
- 28.Rona, G., Chappel, C. I., Balazs, T., & Gaudry, R. (1959). An infarct-like myocardial lesion and other toxic manifestations produced by isoproterenol in the rat. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 67, 443–455.Google Scholar
- 30.Joukar, S., Najafipour, H., Dabiri, S., Sheibani, V., Esmaeili-Mahani, S., Ghotbi, P., et al. (2011). The effect of chronic co-administration of morphine and verapamil on isoproterenol-induced heart injury. Cardiovascular and Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, 9, 218–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 31.Guyton, A. C., & Hall, J. E. (2011). Text book of medical physiology (12th ed., p. 247). Pennsylvania: Saunders.Google Scholar
- 32.Dash, B. (1991). Materia medica of ayurveda. New Delhi: B Jain Publishers.Google Scholar
- 33.Bhishagratna, K. K. (1998). Susruta Samhita. Vol 2. Varanasi: Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office: Varanasi-1: chapter 13.Google Scholar
- 34.Ghosal, S. (1989). The facets and facts of shilajit. In P. C. Dandiya & S. B. Vohara (Eds.), Research and development of indigenous drugs (pp. 72–80). New Delhi: Institute of history of medicine and medical research.Google Scholar