Skip to main content
Log in

Emblica officinalis Exerts Antihypertensive Effect in a Rat Model of DOCA-Salt-Induced Hypertension: Role of (p) eNOS, NO and Oxidative Stress

Cardiovascular Toxicology Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Emblica officinalis (EO) has antioxidant properties that could improve redox-sensitive vascular, cardiac and renal changes associated with deoxycorticosterone acetate/1% NaCl high salt (DOCA/HS)-induced hypertension. We determined whether hydroalcoholic lyophilized extract of EO may influence DOCA/HS-induced hypertension by modulating activity of (p) eNOS and endogenous antioxidants. Hypertension was induced in rats by DOCA-salt (20 mg/kg, s.c.) twice weekly for 5 weeks and replacing drinking water with 1% NaCl solution. These rats received cotreatment of different doses of EO (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. EO significantly decreased arterial blood pressure and heart rate along with cardiac and renal hypertrophy in a dose-dependent fashion as compared to DOCA control rats. Increased TBARS and decreased endogenous antioxidants including GSH, SOD and GSHPx activity in serum, heart and kidney tissues of hypertensive rats were also normalized. Furthermore, this antihypertensive activity of EO was also linked with increased serum NO, K+ levels and decreased Na+ levels. Moreover, EO robustly increased activated eNOS expression in heart. Our results demonstrate that EO reduces oxidative stress, prevents development and progression of hypertension as well as cardiac and renal hypertrophy in DOCA/HS-induced hypertension via modulation of activated eNOS, endogenous antioxidants, serum NO and electrolyte levels.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Institutional subscriptions

Fig. 1

References

  1. Mittal, B. V., & Singh, A. K. (2010). Hypertension in the developing world: challenges and opportunities. American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation, 55, 590–598.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Ansell, B. J. (2005). Evidence for a combined approach to the management of hypertension and dyslipidemia. American Journal of Hypertension, 18, 1249–1257.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Ceriello, A. (2008). Possible role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Diabetes Care, 31, S181–S184.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Rybka, J., Kupczyk, D., Kędziora-Kornatowska, K., Motyl, J., Czuczejko, J., Szewczyk-Golec, K., et al. (2011). Glutathione-related antioxidant defense system in elderly patients treated for hypertension. Cardiovascular Toxicology, 11, 1–9.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Vassort, G., & Turan, B. (2010). Protective role of antioxidants in diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction. Cardiovascular Toxicology, 10, 73–86.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Rodríguez-Iturbe, B., Franco, M., Tapia, E., Quiroz, Y., Johnson, R.J. (2011). Renal inflammation, autoimmunity and salt-sensitive hypertension. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology, Jan 19. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 21251049.

  7. Kim, H. Y., Okubo, T., Juneja, L. R., & Yokozawa, T. (2010). The protective role of amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) against fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in a rat model. The British Journal of Nutrition, 103, 502–512.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Sharma, A., Sharma, M. K., & Kumar, M. (2009). Modulatory role of Emblica officinalis fruit extract against arsenic induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 180, 20–30.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Khan, K. H., & Khan, K. H. (2009). Roles of Emblica officinalis in medicine—A review. Botany Research International, 2, 218–228.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Pozharitskaya, O. N., Ivanova, S. A., Shikov, A. N., & Makarov, V. G. (2007). Separation and evaluation of free radical-scavenging activity of phenol components of Emblica officinalis extract by using an HPTLC-DPPH method. Journal of Separation Science, 30, 1250–1254.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Chen, X., Touyz, R. M., Park, J. B., & Schiffrin, E. L. (2001). Antioxidant effects of vitamins C and E are associated with altered activation of vascular NADPH oxidase and superoxide dismutase in stroke-prone SHR. Hypertension, 38, 606–611.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Ulker, S., McKeown, P. P., & Bayraktutan, U. (2003). Vitamins reverse endothelial dysfunction through regulation of eNOS and NAD(P)H oxidase activities. Hypertension, 41, 534–539.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Ohkawa, H., Oohishi, N., & Yagi, N. (1979). Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Analytical Biochemistry, 95, 351–358.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Moron, M. S., Depierre, J. W., & Mannervik, B. (1979). Levels of glutathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities in rat lung and liver. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 582, 67–78.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Lawrence, R. A., & Burk, R. F. (1976). Glutathione peroxidase activity in selenium-deficient rat liver. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 71, 952–958.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Marklund, S., & Marklund, G. (1974). Involvement of the superoxide anion radical in the autoxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. European Journal of Biochemistry, 47, 469–474.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Bradford, M. M. (1976). A rapid and sensitive method for quantization of microgram quantities effects of age and caloric restriction. Analytical Biochemistry, 72, 248–254.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Bankar, G. R., Nayak, P. G., Bansal, P., Paul, P., Pai, K. S., Singla, R. K., et al. (2011). Vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effect of Cocos nucifera Linn. endocarp on isolated rat thoracic aorta and DOCA salt-induced hypertensive rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 134, 50–54.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Chen, Y. Y., Ji, W., Du, J. R., Yu, D. K., He, Y., Yu, C. X., et al. (2010). Preventive effects of low molecular mass potassium alginate extracted from brown algae on DOCA salt-induced hypertension in rats. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, 64, 291–295.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Kwak, C. J., Kubo, E., Fujii, K., Nishimura, Y., Kobuchi, S., Ohkita, M., et al. (2009). Antihypertensive effect of French maritime pine bark extract (Flavangenol): possible involvement of endothelial nitric oxide-dependent vasorelaxation. Journal of Hypertension, 27, 92–101.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Berthon, N., Laurant, P., Hayoz, D., Fellmann, D., Brunner, H. R., & Berthelot, A. (2002). Magnesium supplementation and deoxycorticosterone acetate–salt hypertension: effect on arterial mechanical properties and on activity of endothelin-1. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 80, 553–561.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Zicha, J., Dobešová, Z., Behuliak, M., Kuneš, J., Vaněčková, I. (2010). Preventive dietary potassium supplementation in young salt-sensitive Dahl rats attenuates development of salt hypertension by decreasing sympathetic vasoconstriction. Acta Physiologica, Dec 24. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 21199401.

  23. Wu, R., Millette, E., Wu, L., & de Champlain, J. (2001). Enhanced superoxide anion formation in vascular tissues from spontaneously hypertensive and desoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertensive rats. Journal of Hypertension, 19, 741–748.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Jaijoy, K., Soonthornchareonnon, N., Lertprasertsuke, N., Panthong, A., & Sireeratawong, S. (2010). Acute and chronic oral toxicity of standardized water extract from the fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products, 3, 48–58.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by a grant from institutional funding agency, AIIMS, New Delhi-110029, India. We are thankful to Sanat product limited, New Delhi, India, for kindly providing hydroalcoholic lyophilized extract of Emblica officinalis as a gift sample.

Conflict of interest

None.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jagriti Bhatia.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Bhatia, J., Tabassum, F., Sharma, A.K. et al. Emblica officinalis Exerts Antihypertensive Effect in a Rat Model of DOCA-Salt-Induced Hypertension: Role of (p) eNOS, NO and Oxidative Stress. Cardiovasc Toxicol 11, 272–279 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12012-011-9122-2

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12012-011-9122-2

Keywords

Navigation