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Serum Magnesium Levels in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: Is There a Relationship with Inflammation Status?

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Abstract

Background: Magnesium (Mg2+) is a fundamental mineral that maintains cellular function, and low levels may be linked to inflammation in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This cross-sectional study evaluated the correlation between serum Mg2+ levels and the inflammatory status in patients undergoing dialysis. Methods: Two hundred patients with CKD [150 undergoing hemodialysis (HD), 50 (18) years; BMI 24 (4.8) kg/m²; and 50 patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD), 54 (17.7) years; BMI, 27.5 (7.3) kg/m²] were included. Serum Mg2+ levels were evaluated using a colourimetric test and commercial kit. Inflammatory markers were assessed by ELISA and multiplex bead-based assay. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated using thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. Results: The median serum Mg2+ levels were 2.3 (0.5) mg/dL, and 21% of patients presented Mg2+ deficiency (< 2.07 mg/dL or 0.85 mmol/L). We found no difference in Mg2+ serum levels between the two groups. A significant negative correlation was observed between serum Mg2+ levels and plasma hs-CRP (r =-0.17, p = 0.01), IL-8 (r =-0.35, p = 0.01), and MCP-1 (r =-0.31, p = 0.03) levels. Conclusion: Mg2+ serum levels were negatively correlated with inflammatory status in patients with CKD on dialysis.

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Data Availability

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author, JAK, upon reasonable request.

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Acknowledgements

We thank all subjects for their participation in the research. We are also grateful to the laboratory members for their technical support during the experiment. This work was supported by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ). All other authors have explicitly stated that there are no conflicts of interest in connection with this article.

Funding

This work was supported by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ). All other authors have explicitly stated that there are no conflicts of interest in connection with this article.

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Julie Ann Kemp contributed to the conceptualisation, data curation, formal analysis, writing, original draft, writing, review, and editing. Drielly C.M.V.Reis, Isadora K. Britto, Larissa Fonseca, Marcia Ribeiro and Beatriz Baptista contributed to the sample and data collection and revised the manuscript. Paulo E.C.Leite contributed to formal analysis, and Marcelo Ribeiro-Alves contributed to statistical analysis and paper corrections. Denise Mafra coordinated all the research steps and restructured and revised the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Julie Ann Kemp.

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Kemp, J.A., Britto, I.K., Ribeiro, M. et al. Serum Magnesium Levels in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: Is There a Relationship with Inflammation Status?. Biol Trace Elem Res 202, 1983–1990 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-023-03829-3

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