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Investigating the Effects of Biogenic Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Produced Using Papaver somniferum Extract on Oxidative Stress, Cytotoxicity, and the Induction of Apoptosis in the THP-1 Cell Line

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This study investigated the effect of novel zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) biosynthesized employing Papaver somniferum leaf on oxidative stress, necrosis, and apoptosis in the leukemia cancer THP-1 cell. The obtained ZnO was examined using SEM, AFM, and TEM microscopy, which revealed an irregular spherical morphology with a size ranging from 20 to 30 nm, and the UV–vis absorbance revealed a strong absorption peak in the range of 360–370, nm confirming the production of ZnO NPs. THP-1 cells were subjected to an MTT, an EdU proliferation, a lactate dehydrogenase release tests, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction experiment, a DAPI staining detection assay, and a flow cytometric analysis for Annexin V to measure the effects of ZnO NPs on cancer cell growth inhibition, apoptosis, and necrosis. Our results show that ZnO NPs inhibit THP-1 line in a concentration-dependent pattern. It was observed that ZnO NPs triggered necrosis (cell death) and apoptosis in the cell line. ZnO NPs massively improved the formation of intracellular ROS, which is crucial in deactivating the development of leukemic cells. In conclusion, ZnO nanoparticles synthesized using Papaver somniferum extract have the ability to inhibit proliferation leukemic cancer cells, making them potential anticancer agents.

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Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy


Scanning electron microscopy


Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy


Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis


[3-(4.5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl)]-2.5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide


Reactive oxygen species


Transmission electron microscopy


Thermogravimetric analysis


Lactate dehydrogenase


X-ray diffraction


Zeta potential


Dynamic light scattering


Human leukemia monocytic cell line

ZnO NPs:

Zinc oxide nanoparticles


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Conceptualization and methodology: A.A.K.; formal analysis: N.R.A. and H.H.K.; investigation and data curation: S.A., A.M.N., and M.K.A.M.; validation S.S.H.; visualization, original draft preparation: H.A.; writing—review and editing: M.S.J.; supervision: A.S.

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Correspondence to Mustafa K. A. Mohammed.

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Kadhim, A.A., Abbas, N.R., Kadhum, H.H. et al. Investigating the Effects of Biogenic Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Produced Using Papaver somniferum Extract on Oxidative Stress, Cytotoxicity, and the Induction of Apoptosis in the THP-1 Cell Line. Biol Trace Elem Res 201, 4697–4709 (2023).

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