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Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) in Refined and Cold-Pressed Vegetable Oils Distributed in Ahvaz, Iran: a Probabilistic Health Risk Assessment


The concentration of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in vegetable oils using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was measured. Probabilistic non-carcinogenic risk in consumers was estimated using the target hazard quotient (THQ) and total target hazard quotient (TTHQ) by Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method. The highest content of PTEs was found in blend oil for As (0.39 ± 0.07 mg/L), in cold-pressed rapeseed oil for Cd and Cu (0.07 ± 0 and 0.40 ± 0.06 mg/L) respectively, in cold-pressed sunflower oil for Fe (0.15 ± 0.10 mg/L), in refined sesame oil for Ni and Pb (0.44 ± 0.07 and 0.65 ± 0.07 mg/L, respectively), and in cold-pressed sunflower and rapeseed oils for Zn (0.19 ± 0.04 mg/L). THQ in adults and children due to individual vegetable oils (cold-pressed and refined vegetable oil) was lower than 1 value. TTHQ in adults and children due to consumption of cold-pressed vegetable oils was 0.05 and 0.26, and also refined vegetable oil was 0.51 and 0.33, respectively. TTHQ due to consumption of both types of oils was less than 1; therefore, the population is not at risk of non-carcinogenicity.

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Sampling and analysis were conducted by Seyed Ali Askarpour, Ebrahim Molaee-Aghaee, and Maryam Ghaderi-Ghahfarokhi, and writing and editing the manuscript by Seyed Ali Askarpour Nabi Shariatifar, Trias Mahmudiono, Parisa Sadighara, Ebrahim Molaee-Aghaee, and Yadolah Fakhri.

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Correspondence to Ebrahim Molaee-Aghaee or Yadolah Fakhri.

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Askarpour, S.A., Molaee-Aghaee, E., Ghaderi-Ghahfarokhi, M. et al. Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) in Refined and Cold-Pressed Vegetable Oils Distributed in Ahvaz, Iran: a Probabilistic Health Risk Assessment. Biol Trace Elem Res 201, 4567–4575 (2023).

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