The primary source of fluoride exposure is groundwater, but evidence suggests that beverages and food are additional fluoride sources. Intake of these products at an early age affects the optimal functioning of soft organs. An increase in sweetened beverage consumption by the pediatric population has been reported, suggesting an increase in fluoride exposure. The objectives of this study were to determine the fluoride concentrations in beverages and analyze the risk to human health from fluoride exposure to sweetened beverages consumed by children. Eighty-two sugar-sweetened beverages produced in different Mexican states were analyzed. The fluoride determination was carried out with an ion-selective electrode. The highest fluoride concentration was 1.92 mg/L; 73.2% of beverages showed fluoride values above permitted limits. Low-cost beverages had the highest fluoride values, suggesting that the water used for their production does not comply with fluorine regulations. According to the risk assessment in children from 3 to 6 years, the daily consumption of juices and sodas with concentrations that exceeded the normative of 0.7 mg/L could represent a risk to dental fluorosis development. It is crucial to control fluoride and regulate its concentrations in beverages for children to ensure food safety, especially in areas of endemic hydrofluorosis.
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The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are not publicly available due to are personal data that must be handled in a confidential manner, but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
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This work was supported by the National Council for Science and Technology through Sectorial Fund for Research in Health and Social Security (grant number #A3-S-43439).
This study was approved by the Health Committee of San Luis Potosí and by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine of the Autonomous University of San Luis Potosí (CEI-2019–003). The study was conducted under the ethical principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. To protect personal information, we follow the Federal Law of Personal Data Protection.
The authors declare that we have reviewed the final version submitted for review.
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Rocha-Amador, D.O., González-Martell, A.D., Pérez-Vázquez, F.J. et al. Health Risk Assessment in Mexican Children Exposed to Fluoride from Sweetened Beverages. Biol Trace Elem Res 201, 2250–2257 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-022-03350-z
- Child health
- Food safety