Skip to main content

The Role of Magnesium in Sleep Health: a Systematic Review of Available Literature

Abstract

To date, no study has critically reviewed the current literature on the association between magnesium (Mg) and sleep health. Therefore, we carried out a systematic review to assess the association between Mg and sleep patterns in adults’ population through observational and interventional studies. We searched for relevant studies through PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed), Scopus (http://www.scopus.com), and ISI Web of Science (http://www.webofscience.com) from the earliest available date until November 2021. Eligibility criteria for study selection were guided by the following components identified using the PI(E)CO (Population, Intervention (Exposure), Comparison, Outcome) framework: P (adult population), I(E) (high dietary intake or supplementation of Mg), C (low dietary intake of Mg or placebo group), and O (sleep pattern including sleep duration, sleep-onset latency, night awakenings, sleep stages, and sleep phases). The present study involved 7,582 subjects from 9 published cross-sectional, cohort, and RCT systematically reviewed the possible links between Mg and sleep quality (daytime falling asleep, sleepiness, snoring, and sleep duration) in an adult population. Observational studies suggested an association between Mg statuses and sleep quality, while the RCTs reported contradictory findings. This systematic review revealed an association between magnesium status and sleep quality (daytime falling asleep, sleepiness, snoring, and sleep duration) according to the observational studies, while the randomized clinical trials showed an uncertain association between magnesium supplementation and sleep disorders. The association between dietary magnesium and sleep patterns needs well-designed randomized clinical trials with a larger sample size and longer follow-up time (more than 12 weeks) to further clarify the relationship.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

Data Availability

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

References

  1. Simonelli G, Marshall NS, Grillakis A, Miller CB, Hoyos CM, Glozier N (2018) Sleep health epidemiology in low and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of poor sleep quality and sleep duration. Sleep Health 4(3):239–250

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Buxton OM, Marcelli E (2010) Short and long sleep are positively associated with obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease among adults in the United States. Soc Sci Med 71(5):1027–1036

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Cappuccio FP, D’Elia L, Strazzullo P, Miller MA (2010) Sleep duration and all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Sleep 33(5):585–592

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Gallicchio L, Kalesan B (2009) Sleep duration and mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Sleep Res 18(2):148–158

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Åkerstedt T, Fredlund P, Gillberg M, Jansson B (2002) A prospective study of fatal occupational accidents–relationship to sleeping difficulties and occupational factors. J Sleep Res 11(1):69–71

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Pandi-Perumal SR, Verster JC, Kayumov L, Lowe AD, Santana MGd, Pires MLN et al (2006) Sleep disorders, sleepiness and traffic safety: a public health menace. Braz J Med Biol Res 39(7):863–71

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Afaghi A, O’Connor H, Chow CM (2007) High-glycemic-index carbohydrate meals shorten sleep onset. Am J Clin Nutr 85(2):426–430

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Cao Y, Wittert G, Taylor AW, Adams R, Shi Z (2016) Associations between macronutrient intake and obstructive sleep apnoea as well as self-reported sleep symptoms: results from a cohort of community dwelling Australian men. Nutrients 8(4):207

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. St-Onge M-P, Roberts A, Shechter A, Choudhury AR (2016) Fiber and saturated fat are associated with sleep arousals and slow wave sleep. J Clin Sleep Med 12(1):19–24

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Ji X, Grandner MA, Liu J (2017) The relationship between micronutrient status and sleep patterns: a systematic review. Public Health Nutr 20(4):687–701

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Wacker WE, Parisi AF (1968) Magnesium metabolism. N Engl J Med 278(13):712–717

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Volpe SL (2013) Magnesium in disease prevention and overall health. Adv Nutr 4(3):378S-S383

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Cao Y, Zhen S, Taylor AW, Appleton S, Atlantis E, Shi Z (2018) Magnesium intake and sleep disorder symptoms: findings from the Jiangsu Nutrition Study of Chinese adults at five-year follow-up. Nutrients 10(10):1354

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Cakir B, Kılınç FN, Uyar GÖ, Özenir Ç, Ekici EM, Karaismailoğlu E (2020) The relationship between sleep duration, sleep quality and dietary intake in adults. Sleep Biol Rhythms 18(1):49–57

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Frusso R, Zarate M, Augustovski F, Rubinstein A (1999) Magnesium for the treatment of nocturnal leg cramps: a crossover randomized trial. J Fam Pract 48:868–871

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Liu G, Weinger JG, Lu Z-L, Xue F, Sadeghpour S (2016) Efficacy and safety of MMFS-01, a synapse density enhancer, for treating cognitive impairment in older adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Alzheimers Dis 49(4):971–990

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG (2010) Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Int J Surg 8(5):336–341

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Peterson J, Welch V, Losos M, Tugwell PJ (2011) The Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses. Ottawa: Ottawa Hospital Research Institute. 2(1):1–2

  19. Higgins JP, Altman DG, Gøtzsche PC, Jüni P, Moher D, Oxman AD et al (2011) The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials. BMJ 343:d5928

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Uhland AM, Kwiecinski GG, DeLuca HF (1992) Normalization of serum calcium restores fertility in vitamin D-deficient male rats. J Nutr 122(6):1338–1344

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Lai X, Chen W, Bian X, Wang T, Li J, Wang H et al (2015) Predictors of poor sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness in peritoneal dialysis patients. Ren Fail 37(1):61–65

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Sato-Mito N, Sasaki S, Murakami K, Okubo H, Takahashi Y, Shibata S et al (2011) The midpoint of sleep is associated with dietary intake and dietary behavior among young Japanese women. Sleep Med 12(3):289–294

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Held K, Antonijevic I, Künzel H, Uhr M, Wetter T, Golly I et al (2002) Oral Mg2+ supplementation reverses age-related neuroendocrine and sleep EEG changes in humans. Pharmacopsychiatry 35(04):135–143

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Nielsen FH, Johnson LK, Zeng H (2010) Magnesium supplementation improves indicators of low magnesium status and inflammatory stress in adults older than 51 years with poor quality sleep. Magnes Res 23:158–168

  25. Abbasi B, Kimiagar M, Sadeghniiat K, Shirazi MM, Hedayati M, Rashidkhani B (2012) The effect of magnesium supplementation on primary insomnia in elderly: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Res Med Sci 17(12):1161

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  26. Peuhkuri K, Sihvola N, Korpela R (2012) Diet promotes sleep duration and quality. Nutr Res 32(5):309–319

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Simpson N, Gibbs E, Matheson G (2017) Optimizing sleep to maximize performance: implications and recommendations for elite athletes. Scand J Med Sci Sports 27(3):266–274

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Fullagar HH, Duffield R, Skorski S, Coutts AJ, Julian R, Meyer T (2015) Sleep and recovery in team sport: current sleep-related issues facing professional team-sport athletes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 10(8):950–957

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This research was supported by Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Conception and design: A.A and F.S

Acquisition of data: A.A, F.S, and N.R

Analysis and interpretation of data: A.A, F.S, and N.R

Drafting the manuscript: F.S, N.R, and A.A

Revising it for intellectual content: A.A, F.S, N.R, and R.A

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Fatemeh Shirani.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Arab, A., Rafie, N., Amani, R. et al. The Role of Magnesium in Sleep Health: a Systematic Review of Available Literature. Biol Trace Elem Res (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-022-03162-1

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-022-03162-1

Keywords

  • Magnesium
  • Nutrition
  • Sleep pattern
  • Sleep quality