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Investigation of the Oxidative Stress Response of a Green Synthesis Nanoparticle (RP-Ag/ACNPs) in Zebrafish


Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are prominent nanomaterials that are efficiently used in different industries including medical products, water treatment, and cosmetics. However, AgNPs are known to cause adverse effects on the ecosystem and human health. In this study, aqueous extract of Rumex patientia (RP) was used as a reducing and stabilizing agent in AgNP biosynthesis. The obtained activated carbon (AC) from Chenopodium album (CA) plant was combined with RP-AgNPs to synthesize RP-Ag/AC NPs. Next, the effects of these green synthesis RP-Ag/AC NPs on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and larvae were investigated. First, we characterized the RP-Ag/AC NPs by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and determined LC50 value as 217.23 mg/L at 96 h. Next, the alterations in survival rate, hatching rate, and morphology of the larvae at 96 h were monitored. The survival rates decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Morphological defects such as yolk sac edema, pericardial edema, spinal curvature, and tail malformation in the NP-treated larvae were observed. RP-Ag/AC NPs stimulated the production of neuronal NOS (nNOS) and 8-OHdG in zebrafish brain tissues in a dose-dependent manner and enhanced neutrophil degeneration and necrosis at concentrations of 50 and 100 mg/L. Thus, the obtained data suggest that the green synthesis process is not sufficient to reduce the effect of oxidative stress caused by AgNPs on oxidative signaling.

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Authors and Affiliations



Mine Köktürk: the owner of the research idea and formal analysis. Serkan Yıldırım: resources and formal analysis. Mehmet Salih Nas: green synthesis. Gunes Ozhan: writing—review and editing. Ismail Bolat: resources and formal analysis. Mehmet Harbi Calimli: green synthesis. Muhammed Atamanalp: conceptualization, visualization, writing—review and editing. Gonca Alak: formal analysis, visualization, writing—original draft, writing—review and editing. All the authors read and approved the final version.

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Correspondence to Gonca Alak.

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Kokturk, M., Yıldırım, S., Nas, M.S. et al. Investigation of the Oxidative Stress Response of a Green Synthesis Nanoparticle (RP-Ag/ACNPs) in Zebrafish. Biol Trace Elem Res 200, 2897–2907 (2022).

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  • Danio rerio
  • Nanoparticle
  • nNOS
  • 8-OHdG
  • Morphological defects
  • Survival rates
  • Patience dock
  • Goosefoot