Effects of Ovariectomy and Exercise Training on Mineral Status in a High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity Rat Model


Osteoporosis is a growing public health issue for an aging society. Previous studies have found both beneficial and detrimental effects of obesity on bone health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of estrogen deficiency and physical activity on bone and blood concentrations of macrominerals (Ca, P, and Mg) and microminerals (Zn, Se, Cu, and Fe) in a high-fat diet-induced obesity rat model. Forty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into six groups: sham-operated and ovariectomized rats that received a standard diet (SD), high-fat diet (HFD), or HFD accompanied by physical exercise. The effect of ovariectomy on bone minerals varied with diet. Ovariectomy significantly decreased femoral Ca and Mg in sedentary rats receiving a SD; femoral Se, Cu, Zn, and Fe in sedentary rats on HFD; and plasma Fe in both sedentary rats on SD and exercising rats on HFD. The interaction of ovariectomy and diet had the strongest impact on Mg and Se concentrations in femur. In ovariectomized rats, HFD showed to have a protective effect on bone mineralization (femoral Ca and Mg), and a negative one on antioxidant microminerals (femoral Se, Cu, and Zn). Physical activity reduced the decline of Se, Cu, Zn, and Fe in the femur of ovariectomized rats on HFD. In the current state of knowledge, it is difficult to suggest if decreased femoral levels of antioxidant microminerals may contribute to the pathophysiology of osteoporosis in obese individuals or just reflect the mineral status in the body.

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Data Availability

The datasets generated and analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.



bone mineral density


high-fat diet








standard diet




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The authors wish to thank Ms Natalia Hladikova for the linguistic corrections of this paper.


This article was created by the realization of the project “Center of excellence of environmental health”, ITMS No. 26240120033, based on the supporting Operational Research and Development Program financed from the European Regional Development Fund. The work was supported by the EEA and Norwegian Financial Mechanisms and the state budget of the Slovak Republic (Project SK0020).

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Correspondence to Vlasta Masanova.

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The experiment design was prepared in accordance with the current legislation on the use of experimental animals in Slovakia. The proposal was approved by the Ethical Committee for Animal Experiment of the Slovak Medical University and by the State Veterinary and Food Authority of the Slovak Republic (Ro-1651/11-221b). All experimental procedures were carried out in animal house in compliance with the European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals used for Experimental and other Scientific Purposes.

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Masanova, V., Krivosikova, Z., Ursinyova, M. et al. Effects of Ovariectomy and Exercise Training on Mineral Status in a High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity Rat Model. Biol Trace Elem Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-021-02655-9

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  • Trace elements
  • Bone minerals
  • Obesity
  • Osteoporosis
  • Ovariectomy
  • Physical exercise