Apoptotic Effect and Anticancer Activity of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles from Marine Algae Chaetomorpha linum Extract Against Human Colon Cancer Cell HCT-116

Abstract

The green approach of nanoparticle synthesis has gained more attention by researchers because of its nontoxic, eco-friendly, biocompatible, and sustainable nature. The present research investigated the anticancer effectiveness of silver nanoparticles synthesized from marine algae Chaetomorpha linum (C. linum) against colon cancer cell HCT-116 in vitro. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (C-AgNPs) are characterized using UV-spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We demonstrated the dose-dependent cytotoxic effect of C-AgNPs in human colorectal carcinoma cells (HCT-116) using MTT assay. The apoptosis induction in HCT-116 cells caused by C-AgNPs has studied fluorescence microscope by staining with fluorogenic agents 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), rhodamine 123, and 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA). By using a flow cytometric test, the apoptotic action of C-AgNPs was performed. The immunoblotting study of caspases, as well as pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic protein expression, was studied using the PCR technique to understand the underlying molecular mechanism of C-AgNPs on cancer cells. The apoptotic studies showed an increase in the expression of apoptotic caspase 3, caspase 9, BH3-interacting domain death agonist (Bid), and Bax, along with a decrease in the anti-apoptotic protein like Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, thereby veritably confirmed by immunoblotting and qPCR technique. The biosynthesized C-AgNPs was an efficient anticancer agent that can induce apoptosis in the HCT-116 colon cells.

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Acknowledgments

The authors would like to extend their sincere appreciation to the Director of NRME Research Laboratory, Newredmars Education Pvt. Ltd., for allowing for carrying out the research work. The authors are also thankful to Dr. Pralay Ranjan Behera, Scientist, Marine Biodiversity Division, Regional Centre of ICAR-Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, for the identification of algal species Chaetomorpha linum for analysis.

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Correspondence to Diptikanta Acharya.

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Acharya, D., Satapathy, S., Somu, P. et al. Apoptotic Effect and Anticancer Activity of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles from Marine Algae Chaetomorpha linum Extract Against Human Colon Cancer Cell HCT-116. Biol Trace Elem Res (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-020-02304-7

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Keywords

  • Chaetomorpha linum
  • Silver nanoparticles
  • Colon cancer
  • HCT-116
  • Cytotoxicity
  • Apoptosis