Assessment of Gender Effects and Reference Values of Mane Hair Trace Element Content in English Thoroughbred Horses (North Caucasus, Russia) Using ICP-DRC-MS

Abstract

The objective of the present study was assessment of gender differences in hair trace element content in English Thoroughbred horses (North Caucasus, Russia) using ICP-DRC-MS and calculation of the reference values. Trace element content in mane hair of 190 stallions and 94 mares (3–7 years old) bred in North Caucasus (Russia) was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Mane hair Co, Cr, Mn, Li, Si, and Sr levels in mares exceeded those in stallions by 77%, 63%, 64%, 42%, 39%, and 64%, respectively. Hair Fe and Si content was nearly twofold higher in female horses as compared to the males. Only hair Zn content was 5% higher in stallions as compared to mares. In addition, mares were characterized by 63%, 65%, 29%, and 40% higher levels of As, Pb, Sn, and Ni levels in hair as compared to the respective values in stallions. In turn, hair Al and Hg were more than twofold higher in mares than in stallions. The reference intervals of mane hair content (μg/g) for Co (0.006–0.143), Cr (0.028–0.551), Cu (4.17–6.84), Fe (10.11–442.2), I (0.026–3.69), Mn (0.551–12.55), Se (0.108–0.714), Zn (97.43–167), Li (0.011–0.709), Ni (0.060–0.589), Si (0.665–29.12), V (0.006–0.584), Al (1.98–168.5), As (0.006–0.127), Cd (0.002–0.033), B (0.494–16.13), Pb (0.018–0.436), Sn (0.002–0.144), Sr (1.0–9.46), and Hg (0.0018–0.017) in the total cohort of horses were estimated using the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standard Guidelines. The reference intervals were also estimated for stallions and mares bred in North Caucasus (Russia) and may be used for interpretation of the results of hair trace element analysis in horses.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.

    Coenen M (2013) Macro and trace elements in equine nutrition. In: Geog JR, Harris PA, Coenen M (eds) Equine applied and clinical nutrition. Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 190–228

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Kalashnikov V, Zajcev A, Atroshchenko M, Miroshnikov S, Frolov A, Zav’yalov O, Kilinkova L, Kalashnikova T (2018) The content of essential and toxic elements in the hair of the mane of the trotter horses depending on their speed. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:21961–21967. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2334-2

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    El-deeb WM, El-Bahr SM (2014) Selected biochemical indicators of equine rhabdomyolysis in Arabian horses: acute phase proteins and trace elements. J Equine Vet Sci 34:484–488. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2013.09.012

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Armelin MJA, Ávila RL, Piasentin RM, Saiki M (2003) Effect of chelated mineral supplementation on the absorption of Cu, Fe, K, Mn and Zn in horse hair. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 258:449–451. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026278914222

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Jančíková P, Horký P, Zeman L (2013) The effect of various copper sources on the trace elements profile in the hair, plasma and faeces and copper activity in the organism of horses. Acta Univ Agric Silvic Mendel Brun 60:145–152. https://doi.org/10.11118/actaun201260060145

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Davis TZ, Stegelmeier BL, Hall JO (2014) Analysis in horse hair as a means of evaluating selenium toxicoses and long-term exposures. J Agric Food Chem 62:7393–7397. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf500861p

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Janiszewska J, Cieśla A (2002) Concentration of cadmium and lead in horse blood serum and hair in relation to season and environment. EJPAU 5:1–8

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Dunnett M, Lees P (2003) Trace element, toxin and drug elimination in hair with particular reference to the horse. Res Vet Sci 75:89–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0034-5288(03)00074-2

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Hintz HF (2001) Hair analysis as an indicator of nutritional status. J Equine Vet Sci 21:A1. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0737-0806(01)70122-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Dobrzanski Z, Jankowska D, Dobicki W, Kupczynski R (2005) The influence of different factors on the concentration of elements in hair of horses. Anim Environ 2:153

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Asano R, Suzuki K, Otsuka T, Otsuka M, Sakurai H (2002) Concentrations of toxic metals and essential minerals in the mane hair of healthy racing horses and their relation to age. J Vet Med Sci 64:607–610. https://doi.org/10.1292/jvms.64.607

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Topczewska J, Krupa W (2013) Influence of horse breed and housing system on the level of selected elements in horse’s hair. J Elem 18:287–295

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Topczewska J (2012) Effects of seasons on the concentration of selected trace elements in horse hair. JCEA 13:671–680. https://doi.org/10.5513/JCEA01/13.4.1110

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Asano K, Suzuki K, Chiba M, Sera K, Asano R, Sakai T (2005) Twenty-eight element concentrations in mane hair samples of adult riding horses determined by particle-induced X-ray emission. Biol Trace Elem Res 107:135–140. https://doi.org/10.1385/BTER:107:2:135

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Asano K, Suzuki K, Chiba M, Sera K, Matsumoto T, Asano R, Sakai T (2005) Influence of the coat color on the trace elemental status measured by particle-induced X-ray emission in horse hair. Biol Trace Elem Res 103:169–176. https://doi.org/10.1385/BTER:103:2:169

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Friedrichs KR, Harr KE, Freeman KP, Szladovits B, Walton RM, Barnhart KF, Blanco-Chavez J (2012) ASVCP reference interval guidelines: determination of de novo reference intervals in veterinary species and other related topics. Vet Clin Pathol 41:441–453. https://doi.org/10.1111/vcp.12006

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    National Research Council (2007) Nutrient requirements of horses: sixth revised edition. the National Academies Press, Washington, DC. https://doi.org/10.17226/11653

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    USSR State Agriculture Committee (1987) Temporary maximum allowable levels of certain chemical elements and gossypol in feeds for farm animals and feed additives. Gosagroprom USSR, Moscow

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Geffré A, Concordet D, Braun JP, Trumel C (2011) Reference value advisor: a new freeware set of macroinstructions to calculate reference intervals with Microsoft Excel. Vet Clin Path 40:107–112. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-165X.2011.00287.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Ghorbani A, Mohit A, Kuhi HD (2015) Effects of dietary mineral intake on hair and serum mineral contents of horses. J Equine Vet Sci 35:295–300. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2015.01.018

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Cywinska A, Szarska E, Kowalska A, Ostaszewski P, Schollenberger A (2011) Gender differences in exercise–induced intravascular haemolysis during race training in thoroughbred horses. Res Vet Sci 90:133–137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2010.05.004

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Naseema U, Vairamuthu S, Balachandran C, Ravikumar G (2018) Effect of age and gender on serum mineral profile in thoroughbred horses. Indian Vet J 95:21–23

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Jeffery EH, Noseworthy R, Cherian MG (1989) Age dependent changes in metallothionein and accumulation of cadmium in horses. Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol 93:327–332. https://doi.org/10.1016/0742-8413(89)90242-9

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Shimada H, Hashiguchi T, Yasutake A, Waalkes MP, Imamura Y (2012) Sexual dimorphism of cadmium-induced toxicity in rats: involvement of sex hormones. Arch Toxicol 86:1475–1480. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-012-0844-0

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Anke M, Kosla T, Groppel B (1989) The cadmium status of horses from Central Europe depending on breed, sex age and living area. Arch Tierernahr 39:657–683. https://doi.org/10.1080/17450398909428337

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Skalny AV, Skalnaya MG, Tinkov AA, Serebryansky EP, Demidov VA, Lobanova YN, Grabeklis AR, Berezkina ES, Gryazeva IV, SkalnyAA SOA, Zhivaev NG, Nikonorov AA (2015) Hair concentration of essential trace elements in adult non-exposed Russian population. Environ Monit Assess 187:677. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-4903-x

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    O'Hara TM, Carroll G, Barboza P, Mueller K, Blake J, Woshner V, Willetto C (2001) Mineral and heavy metal status as related to a mortality event and poor recruitment in a moose population in Alaska. J Wildl Dis 37:509–522. https://doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-37.3.509

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Malter R, Rendon C, Aalund R (2005) A developmental study of sex differences in hair tissue mineral analysis patterns at ages six, twelve and eighteen. J Orthomol Med 20:245–254

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Ali F, Lodhi LA, Qureshi ZI, Ahmad I, Hussain R (2013) Serum mineral profile in various reproductive phases of mares. Pak Vet J 33:296–299

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Vivoli G, Fantuzzi G, Bergomi M, Tonelli E, Gatto MR, Zanetti F, Del Dot M (1990) Relationship between zinc in serum and hair and some hormones during sexual maturation in humans. Sci Total Environ 95:29–40

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Michos C, Kalfakakou V, Karkabounas S, Kiortsis D, Evangelou A (2010) Changes in copper and zinc plasma concentrations during the normal menstrual cycle in women. Gynecol Endocrinol 26:250–255

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Zheng G, Wang L, Guo Z, Sun L, Wang L, Wang C, Zuo Z, Qiu H (2015) Association of serum heavy metals and trace element concentrations with reproductive hormone levels and polycystic ovary syndrome in a Chinese population. Biol Trace Elem Res 167:1–10

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Arredondo M, Núñez H, López G, Pizarro F, Ayala M, Araya M (2010) Influence of estrogens on copper indicators: in vivo and in vitro studies. Biol Trace Elem Res 134:252–264

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Gabrielsen JS (2017) Iron and testosterone: interplay and clinical implications. Curr Sex Health Rep 9:5–11

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Chang CS, Choi JB, Kim HJ, Park SB (2011) Correlation between serum testosterone level and concentrations of copper and zinc in hair tissue. Biol Trace Elem Res 144:264–271

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Zeng Q, Zhou B, Feng W, Wang YX, Liu AL, Yue J, Li YF, Lu WQ (2013) Associations of urinary metal concentrations and circulating testosterone in Chinese men. Reprod Toxicol 41:109–114

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Stachurska A, Walkuska G, Cebera M, Jaworski Z, Chalabis-Mazurek A (2011) Heavy metal status of Polish Konik horses from stable-pasture and outdoor maintenance systems in the Masurian environment. J Elem 16:623–633. https://doi.org/10.5601/jelem.2011.16.4.11

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Wichert B, Frank T, Kienzle E (2002) Zinc, copper and selenium intake and status of horses in Bavaria. J Nutr 132:1776S–1777S. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/132.6.1776S

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Tamburo E, Varrica D, Dongarrà G (2015) Coverage intervals for trace elements in human scalp hair are site specific. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 39:70–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2014.11.005

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Patra RC, Swarup D, Naresh R, Kumar P, Nandi D, Shekhar P, Roy S, Ali SL (2007) Tail hair as an indicator of environmental exposure of cows to lead and cadmium in different industrial areas. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 66:127–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2006.01.005

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Skalny AV, Kiselev VF (2012) Element status of population of Russia. Part III. Element status of population of North-Western, Southern, and North-Caucasian Federal districts. ELBI-SPb, Saint Petersburg, p 447

    Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Brown RJ, Milton MJ (2005) Analytical techniques for trace element analysis: an overview. TrAC Trends Anal Chem 24:266–274

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Saitoh K, Sera K, Gotoh T, Nakamura M (2002) Comparison of elemental quantity by PIXE and ICP-MS and/or ICP-AES for NIST standards. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res B 189:86–93

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Elzain AH, Ebrahim AM, Eltoum MS (2016) Comparison between XRF, PIXE and ICP-OES techniques applied for analysis of some medicinal plants. J Appl Chem 9:6–12

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

The research was conducted with the support of the Russian Science Foundation (project No. 17-16-01109).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Anatoly V. Skalny.

Ethics declarations

The protocol of the present investigation was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee (Orenburg State University, Orenburg, Russia). All procedures involving animals were performed in agreement with the ethical standards by the Declaration of Helsinki (1964) and its later amendments (2013).

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kalashnikov, V.V., Zajcev, A.M., Atroshchenko, M.M. et al. Assessment of Gender Effects and Reference Values of Mane Hair Trace Element Content in English Thoroughbred Horses (North Caucasus, Russia) Using ICP-DRC-MS. Biol Trace Elem Res 191, 382–388 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-1634-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Horses
  • Mares
  • Stallions
  • Trace elements
  • Reference range