The Effects of Low Selenium on DNA Methylation in the Tissues of Chickens

Abstract

DNA methylation is involved in epigenetic mechanisms associated with gene suppression, and its abnormalities lead to gene instability and disease development. As an essential trace element in humans and animals, selenium (Se) is also associated with abnormal changes in DNA methylation. However, the effect of low Se on DNA methylation in avian tissues has not been reported. In the current study, chickens were fed a low-Se diet (0.033 mg Se/kg) or supplemented with 0.15 mg Se/kg as selenite for up to 55 days. DNA methylation levels were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and methyl-DpG-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) mRNA levels were examined through the applications of RT-PCR. The experiment aims to explore the relationship between low Se and DNA methylation. The results showed that total DNA methylation levels in the muscle tissues, brain, immune tissues, and liver of the low-selenium diet group were decreased compared with the control group. The degree of DNA methylation reduction in different tissues from largest to smallest was liver > cerebellum > thymus > brain > spleen ≥ leg muscles > pectoral muscles > bursa of Fabricius > thalamus > wing muscles. DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B mRNA expression levels of the low-selenium diet group were decreased compared with those in the control group. The mRNA expression of the MBD2 gene was increased. The results indicate that low Se can reduce the DNA methylation levels of tissues, especially within the liver. These conclusions provide a basis for exploring the pathogenesis of selenium deficiency from the perspective of DNA methylation and create a new basis for comparative medicine.

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Funding

This study was supported by the International (Regional) Cooperation and Exchange Projects of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31320103920) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31772814).

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Correspondence to Zhihui Jiang or Shiwen Xu.

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Zhang, Q., Zheng, S., Wang, S. et al. The Effects of Low Selenium on DNA Methylation in the Tissues of Chickens. Biol Trace Elem Res 191, 474–484 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-1630-0

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Keywords

  • Chicken
  • Selenium (Se) deficiency
  • DNA methylation
  • DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs)
  • Methyl-DpG-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2)